• Before Time - Origins in infinity.
• Ancient History - From the earliest recorded date in The Urantia Book to 10 million years ago.
• Early History - From 10 million years ago to the birth of Jesus, 7 BC
• The Life of Jesus - From 7 BC to 30 AD
• Modern History - From 30 AD to the present
• The Future - From the present up to the stages of light and life.
and other significant dates
Providing green links to references, blue links to source materials
These discrepancies are explainable. See the explanatory links as they become available.
- Before Time -
• The traditional starting point of the history of the universe of universes is in the eternal past - (The Urantia Book, 8:1.9)
• Paradise is the actual source of all material universes — past, present, and future. As the cosmic source, Paradise functions prior to space and before time - (The Urantia Book, 56:1.1)
• Mortals are virtually unable to comprehend the thought of eternity, something never beginning and never ending, since everything familiar has an end - (The Urantia Book, 32:5.2)
- Ancient History -
987,000,000,000 BC - Andronover - An associate force organizer reports to the Ancients of Days that space conditions are favorable for the initiation of materialization phenomena in a sector of the easterly segment of the Superuniverse of Orvonton - (The Urantia Book, 57:1.3)
900,000,000,000 BC - A permit is issued by the Uversa Council of Equilibrium to the superuniverse government authorizing the dispatch of a force organizer and staff to the region previously designated to execute the mandate of the Ancients of Days calling for the organization of a new material creation - (The Urantia Book, 57:1.4)
875,000,000,000 BC - The Andronover nebula is duly initiated - (The Urantia Book, 57:1.6)
800,000,000,000 BC - The Andronover creation is well established as one of the magnificent primary nebulae of Orvonton - (The Urantia Book, 57:2.2)
700,000,000,000 BC - The Andronover system assumes gigantic proportions. All of the material assigned to the subsequent creations is held within the confines of this gigantic space wheel - (The Urantia Book, 57:2.3)
600,000,000,000 BC - The height of the Andronover energy-mobilization period is attained - (The Urantia Book, 57:2.4)
500,000,000,000 BC - The first Andronover sun is born (The Urantia Book, 57:3.6)
400,000,000,000 BC - The Michael and local universe Mother Spirit of Nebadon select the disintegrating Andronover nebula as the site of their adventure in universe building. - (The Urantia Book, 119:0.7; 57:3.8)
400,000,000,000 BC - Many of the near-by and smaller suns are recaptured as a result of the gradual enlargement and further condensation of the nucleus - (The Urantia Book, 57:3.7)
399,999,000,000–5,000,000,000 BC - The architectural worlds of Salvington and the 100 constellation headquarters groups of planets, the local system headquarters planets, are constructed - (The Urantia Book, 57:3.8)
300,000,000,000 BC - The Andronover nebular system is passing through a transient period of relative physical stability. The staff of Michael of Nebadon arrive on Salvington and the Uversa government of Orvonton recognizes the local universe of Nebadon - (The Urantia Book, 57:3.9)
200,000,000,000 BC - A time of contraction and condensation in the Andronover nuclear mass. Some planets revolving around the newborn suns have cooled sufficiently to be suitable for life implantation. The oldest inhabited planets of Nebadon date from these times. The completed universe mechanism of Nebadon first begins to function; Michael’s creation is registered on Uversa as a universe of inhabitation - (The Urantia Book, 57:3.10; 57:3.11)
75,000,000,000 BC - The Andronover nebula has attained the height of its sun-family stage. The majority of these suns have since developed extensive systems of planets, satellites, dark islands, comets, meteors, and cosmic dust clouds - (The Urantia Book, 57:4.2)
13,700,000,000 BC - According to earth science, The Big Bang theory, the universe sprang into existence from a singularity event at about this time - The Big Bang Theory, An Overview
7,000,000,000 BC - The height of the Andronover terminal breakup, the period of the birth of the larger terminal suns and the apex of the local physical disturbances. The Milky Way galaxy is composed of vast numbers of former spiral and other nebulae, and many still retain their original configuration. But as the result of internal catastrophes and external attraction, many are so distorted and rearranged that these enormous aggregations appear as gigantic luminous masses of blazing suns, like the Magellanic Cloud. - (The Urantia Book, 15:4.8; 57:4.7)
6,000,000,000 BC - The birth of Sol, our Sun, the 56th from the last of the Andronover second solar family. The total number of suns and sun systems having origin in the Andronover nebula is 1,013,628. The number of the solar system sun is 1.013,572. Our Sun will shine for more than 25,000,000,000 billion years. - (The Urantia Book, 57:4.8; 41:9.5) [Date Discrepancy]
4,500,000,000 BC - The enormous Angona system begins its approach to the neighborhood of our solitary Sun, which, in conjunction with one of its periodic internal convulsions, experiences a partial disruption; from opposite sides and simultaneously, enormous volumes of matter are disgorged. From the Angona side there is drawn out a vast column of solar gases, rather pointed at both ends and markedly bulging at the center, which become permanently detached from the Sun’s immediate gravity control - (The Urantia Book, 57:5.4-6)
4,000,000,000 BC - The Jupiter and Saturn systems are organized much as observed today except for their moons, which continue to increase in size for several billion years. All of the planets and satellites of the solar system continue to grow as the result of continued meteoric captures - (The Urantia Book, 57:6.6)
[Science note] - 3.9 billion BC: cells resembling prokaryotes appear.
3,500,000,000 BC - The cores of most of the moons are intact, though some of the smaller satellites later unite to make the present-day larger moons. This age may be regarded as the era of planetary assembly - (The Urantia Book, 57:6.7)
[Science note] - 3.5 billion BC: first appearance of photosynthesis and therefore the first occurrence of increasing quantities of atmospheric oxygen on Earth.
3,000,000,000 BC - The solar system is functioning much as it does today. Its members continue to grow in size as meteors continued to pour in upon the planets and their satellites at a prodigious rate. The solar system is placed on the physical registry of Nebadon and given its name, Monmatia - (The Urantia Book, 57:6.8-9)
2,500,000,000 BC - Earth (Urantia) is a well-developed sphere about one tenth its present mass and is still growing rapidly by meteoric accretion - (The Urantia Book, 57:6.10)
[Science note] - 2.1 billion BC: more complex cells appear: the eukaryotes.
1,500,000,000 BC - Earth is two thirds its present size, while Luna, the moon is nearing its present mass. Earth’s rapid gain over the moon in size enables it to begin the slow robbery of what little atmosphere the moon originally had - (The Urantia Book, 57:7.4)
1,500,000,000 BC - Precipitation of rain on the hot rocky surface begins. For thousands of years Urantia is enveloped in one vast and continuous blanket of steam. - (The Urantia Book, 57:7.7)
[Science note] - 1.2 billion BC: Sexual reproduction evolves, leading to faster evolution where genes are mixed in every generation enabling greater variation for subsequent selection.
1,000,000,000 BC - 30 AD - It required almost one billion years to complete the bestowal career of Michael and to effect the final establishment of his supreme authority in the universe of his own creation. The bestowals of Michael as a Melchizedek Son, then as a Lanonandek Son, and next as a Material Son are all equally mysterious and beyond explanation. In each instance he appeared suddenly and as a fully developed individual of the bestowal group - (The Urantia Book, 119:8.2; 119:3.6)
1,000,000,000 BC - Michael makes ready for his first bestowal mission,announcing that his elder brother, Immanuel, will assume authority in Nebadon while he (Michael) will be absent on an unexplained mission. Three days after his disappearance a communication from the Melchizedek sphere registers the appearance at noon of an unusual Melchizedek Son. He is gone for 20 years of standard time before reappearing on Salvington - (The Urantia Book, 119:0.7; 119:1.1)
1,000,000,000 BC - The beginning of Urantia history. The planet has attained approximately its present size. And about this time it is placed upon the physical registries of Nebadon and given its name, Urantia. Urantia is assigned to the system of Satania for planetary administration and placed on the life registry of Norlatiadek - (The Urantia Book, 57:8.1; 57:8.6)
950,000,000 BC - There is one great continent of land and one large body of water, the Pacific Ocean. Volcanoes are still widespread and earthquakes are both frequent and severe. Meteors continue to bombard the earth. The atmosphere is clearing up, but with a large amount of carbon dioxide. The earth’s crust is gradually stabilizing - (The Urantia Book, 57:8.5)
900,000,000 BC - The arrival of the first Satania scouting party sent out from Jerusem to examine Urantia to report on its adaptation for a life-experiment world - (The Urantia Book, 57:8.7)
900,000,000 BC - Nowhere on the surface of the world will there be found more of the modified remnants of these ancient preocean rocks than in northeastern Canada around Hudson Bay - (The Urantia Book, 57:8.12) [Date Discrepancy]
850,000,000 BC - Stabilization of the earth’s crust begins. Most of the heavier metals have settled down toward the center of the globe; the cooling crust has ceased to cave in on such an extensive scale as in former ages - (The Urantia Book, 57:8.16)
850,000,000 BC - Approximate time of Michael’s second bestowal. Three days after his disappearance from Salvington, there appeared within the reserve corps of primary Lanonandek Sons one with credentials of assignment to system 11 of constellation 37 where the most widespread and disastrous rebellion in Nebadon was in progress. For more than 17 years of universe time Michael worked to right the wrongs instigated by the rebel System Sovereign, Lutentia, becoming known as Savior Sovereign of the system Palonia - (The Urantia Book, 119:0.7; 119:2.1)
750,000,000 BC - The first breaks in the continental land mass began as the great north-and-south cracking, which admits the ocean waters and prepares the way for the westward drift of the continents of North and South America, including Greenland. A long east-and-west cleavage separates Africa from Europe and severes the land masses of Australia, the Pacific Islands, and Antarctica from the Asiatic continent - (The Urantia Book, 57:8.23)
700,000,000 BC - Urantia is approaching conditions suitable for the support of life - (The Urantia Book, 57:8.24)
700,000,000 BC - Approximate time of Michael’s third bestowal. On the third day after his disappearance on Salvington there appeared, unnanounced, on the headquarters world of system 87 in constellation 61, a Material Son assigned to world 217 (where the second rebellion up to that time of a System Sovereign in Nebadon was transpiring); Michael began his difficult career as a planetary Adam on a quarantined world in secession and rebellion - (The Urantia Book, 119:3.1)
600,000,000 BC - The commission of Life Carriers sent out from Jerusem arrives on Urantia to study the physical conditions preparatory to launching life - (The Urantia Book, 58:1.1)
[Science note] - 600 million BC: The earliest multicellular animal was a sponge-like creature appeared at about this time.
550,000,000–400,000,000 BC - The second major planetary era, the life-dawn era, extends over the next 150,000,000 years and is defined as the Proterozoic era - (The Urantia Book, ( 59:0.1) [Date Discrepancy]
550,000,000 BC - Approximate time of Michael’s fourth bestowal. On the third day after his disappearance from Salvington there appeared an unknown seraphim belonging to the supreme order of the angels assigned to the teaching counselors corps. For over 40 standard universe years he (Michael) functioned as a private secretary to 26 different master teachers, functioning on 22 different worlds where his last assignment was as a counselor attached to a Trinity Teacher Son on world 462 in system 84 of constellation 3 in Nebadon - (The Urantia Book, 119:4.1; 119:0.7)
550,000,000 BC - The Life Carrier corps initiates the original life patterns and plants them in the water in 3 original, identical, marine-life implantations: the central or Eurasian-African, the eastern or Australasian, and the western, embracing Greenland and the Americas - (The Urantia Book, 58:4.2)
[Science note] - 505 million BC: The first vertebrates related to present-day lampreys and hagfishes appear. Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia are examples of these jawless fish, or Agnatha. Their internal skeletons were cartilaginous. They lacked the paired pectoral and pelvic fins of more advanced fish. They were precursors to the bony fish.
500,000,000 BC - Primitive marine vegetable life is well established - (The Urantia Book, 58:4.3)
[Science note] - The formation of the Solar System began 4.6 billion BC with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud. Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which the planets, moons, asteroids, and other Solar System bodies formed.
450,000,000 BC - The transition from vegetable to animal life occurs suddenly. There are many transitional stages between the early primitive vegetable forms of life and the later well-defined animal organisms. From era to era radically new species of animal life arise. They do not evolve as the result of the gradual accumulation of small variations; they appear as full-fledged and new orders of life, and they appear suddenly; the higher protozoan types of animal life now appear suddenly. The ameba, the typical single-celled animal organism, appears today much as it did when it was the last and greatest achievement in evolution. This creature and its protozoan cousins are to the animal creation what bacteria are to the plant kingdom; they represent the survival of the first early evolutionary steps in life differentiation together with failure of subsequent development - (The Urantia Book, 58:6.1; 65:2.4)
400,000,000–150,000,000 BC - The third major planetary era, the marine life era, extends over the next 250,000,000 years and is defined as the Paleozoic era - (The Urantia Book, 59:6.11; 59:0.1) [Date Discrepancy]
400,000,000 BC - Both vegetable and animal marine life is fairly well distributed over the whole world - (The Urantia Book, 59:1.2)
400,000,000 BC - Suddenly and without gradation ancestry the first multicellular animals make their appearance. The trilobites have evolved, and for ages they dominate the seas. From the standpoint of marine life this is the trilobite age - (The Urantia Book, 59:1.4) [Date Discrepancy]
390,000,000 BC - Over parts of eastern and western America and western Europe may be found the stone strata laid down during this time; these are the oldest rocks which contain trilobite fossils - (The Urantia Book, 59:1.6)
380,000,000 BC - The newly appearing Atlantic Ocean makes extensive inroads on all adjacent coast lines. The northern Atlantic or Arctic Seas are connected with the southern Gulf waters. When this southern sea enters the Appalachian trough, its waves break upon the east against mountains as high as the Alps, but in general the continents are uninteresting lowlands, utterly devoid of scenic beauty - (The Urantia Book, 59:1.8)
370,000,000 BC - The almost total submergence of North South America occurs, followed by the sinking of Africa andAustralia. Only certain parts of North America remain above these shallow Cambrian seas. All of these phenomena of land sinking and land rising are undramatic, taking place slowly over millions of years - (The Urantia Book, 59:1.11)
360,000,000 BC - The world climate is oceanic, not continental. The southern seas are warmer then than now, and they extended northward over North America up to the polar regions. The Gulf Stream courses over the central portion of North America, being deflected eastward warm the shores of Greenland, making that continent a veritable tropic Paradise - (The Urantia Book, 59:1.17)
350,000,000 BC - Three major inundations characterize this period, but before it ends, the continents again rise, the total land emergence being 15 per cent greater than now exists - (The Urantia Book, 59:2.2)
340,000,000 BC - This is a great limestone age, much of its stone being laid down by lime-secreting algae - (The Urantia Book, 59:2.3)
330,000,000 BC - The great North American volcano of eastern Kentucky erupts, one of the greatest volcanic activities the world has ever known. The ashes of this volcano cover five hundred square miles to a depth of from fifteen to twenty feet - (The Urantia Book, 59:2.5) [Date Discrepancy]
300,000,000 BC - The seas teem with lime-shelled life, and the falling of these shells to the sea bottom gradually builds up very thick layers of limestone. This is the first widespread limestone deposit, covering practically all of Europe and North America. The thickness of this ancient rock layer averages about 1000 feet - (The Urantia Book, 59:3.1)
300,000,000 BC - Approximate time of Michael’s fifth bestowal. Universe authority is transferred to Immanuel and Michael and Gabriel depart Salvington. Shortly thereafter an unannounced and unnumbered ascendant pilgrim of mortal origin, Eventod, appeared, living and functioning on Uversa for 11 years of Orvonton standard time where he (Michael) continued his career up to the time of the advancement of a group of ascending mortals to Havona, when he took his leave of Uversa and returned to Salvington - (The Urantia Book, 119:0.7; 119:5.1)
290,000,000 BC - The early mountain movement of all the continents is beginning, and the greatest of these crustal upheavals are the Himalayas of Asia and the great Caledonian Mountains, extending from Ireland through Scotland and on to Spitzbergen - (The Urantia Book, 59:3.3)
290,000,000 BC - The trilobites rapidly decline, and the center of the stage is occupied by the larger mollusks, or cephalopods. These animals grew to be fifteen feet long and one foot in diameter and became masters of the seas. This species of animal appeared suddenly and assumed dominance of sea life - (The Urantia Book, 59:3.5)
280,000,000 BC - The rock deposits of this submergence are known in North America as Niagara limestone because this is the stratum of rock over which Niagara Falls now flows - (The Urantia Book, 59:3.9)
280,000,000 BC - The trilobites have nearly disappeared, and the mollusks continue monarchs of the seas; coral-reef formation increases greatly. During this age, in the more favorable locations the primitive water scorpions first evolve. Soon thereafter, and suddenly, the true scorpions —actual air breathers—make their appearance - (The Urantia Book, 59:3.11)
275,000,000–225,000,000 BC - The conclusion of the longest periods of marine-life evolution, the age of fishes. This period lasts almost 50,000,000 years; the Devonian period - (The Urantia Book, 59:4.18)
270,000,000 BC - The continents are all above water, one of the greatest land-emergence epochs in all world history - (The Urantia Book, 59:4.4)
265,000,000 BC - The land areas of North and South America, Europe, Africa, northern Asia, and Australia are briefly inundated. The immense arctic North American inland sea finds an outlet to the Pacific Ocean through northern California - (The Urantia Book, 59:4.5)
250,000,000 BC - The appearance of the fish family, the vertebrates, one of the most important steps in all prehuman evolution - (The Urantia Book, 59:4.9)
250,000,000 BC - Suddenly, the prolific fern family appears and quickly spreads over the face of the rapidly rising land in all parts of the world. Tree types, two feet thick and forty feet high, soon developed; later on, leaves evolved, but these early varieties had only rudimentary foliage. There are many smaller plants, but their fossils are not found since they were usually destroyed by the still earlier appearing bacteria - (The Urantia Book, 59:4.13)
230,000,000 BC - Great volcanic activity occurs in the St. Lawrence region. Mount Royal, at Montreal, is the eroded neck of one of these volcanoes. The deposits of this entire epoch are well shown in the Appalachian Mountains of North America where the Susquehanna River has cut a valley exposing these successive layers, which attain a thickness of over 13,000 feet - (The Urantia Book, 59:4.16)
220,000,000 BC - This is the age of ferns - (The Urantia Book, 59:5.2)
210,000,000 BC - Suddenly the first of the land animals appear. There are numerous species of these animals that are able to live on land or in water. These air- breathing amphibians developed from the arthropods, whose swim bladders have evolved into lungs.This period could be known as the age of frogs. The frog is one of the earliest of surviving human-race ancestors and is the only species ancestor of the early dawn races now living on the face of the earth. The human race has no surviving ancestry between the frog and the Eskimo - (The Urantia Book, 59:5.5; 65:2.7)
200,000,000 BC - The really active stages of the Carboniferous period begin. For 20,000,000 years prior to this time the earlier coal deposits are being laid down, but now the more extensive coal-formation activities are in process - (The Urantia Book, 59:5.13)
190,000,000 BC - The westward extension of the North American Carboniferous sea over the present Rocky Mountains region, with an outlet to the Pacific Ocean through northern California. Coal continues to be laid down throughout the Americas and Europe, layer upon layer - (The Urantia Book, 59:5.19)
160,000,000 BC - The land is largely covered with vegetation adapted to support land-animal life, and the atmosphere is ideal for animal respiration - (The Urantia Book, 59:6.10)
150,000,000–50,000,000 BC - The fourth major planetary era, the early land-life era. extends over the next 100,000,000 years and is known as the Mesozoic era - (The Urantia Book, 59:0.1; 60:4.6) [Date Discrepancy]
150,000,000 BC - Approximate time of Michael’s sixth bestowal. Michael, accompanied by Gabriel, disappeared from Salvington to appear as a full-fledged morontia mortal of ascending status at the courts of the Most High Fathers on the headquarters planet of constellation five - (The Urantia Book, 119:6.1; 119:0.7)
150,000,000 BC - The early land-life periods of the world’s history begins - (The Urantia Book, 60:1.5)
140,000,000 BC - Suddenly and with only the hint of the two prereptilian ancestors that developed in Africa during the preceding epoch, reptiles appeared in full- fledged form. - (The Urantia Book, 60:1.9)
130,000,000 BC - A rich and unique marine life appears on the Californian Pacific coast, where over 1000 species of ammonites develope from the higher types of Cephalopods - (The Urantia Book, 60:1.13)
125,000,000–100,000,000 BC - This period, embracing the height and the beginning decline of the reptiles, is known as the Jurassic - (The Urantia Book, 60:2.15)
125,000,000–100,000,000 BC - This period, the Triassic, extends over 25,000,000 years - (The Urantia Book, 60:1.14)
120,000,000 BC - A new phase of the reptilian age begins, the evolution and decline of the dinosaurs. Land-animal life reaches its greatest development, in point of size, and had virtually perished from the face of the earth by the end of this age - (The Urantia Book, 60:2.1)
100,000,000 BC - The reptilian age is drawing to a close - (The Urantia Book, 60:2.14)
95,000,000 BC - The southern seas invade North America and connect with the Arctic Ocean, constituting the second greatest submergence of the continent. When this sea finally withdraws, it leaves the continent about as it now is. Before this great submergence began, the eastern Appalachian highlands had been almost completely worn down to the water’s level - (The Urantia Book, 60:3.5)
90,000,000 BC - The angiosperms emerge from the early Cretaceous seas and soon overrun the continents. These land plants suddenly appeared along with fig trees, magnolias, and tulip trees. Soon after this time fig trees, breadfruit trees, and palms overspread Europe and the western plains of North America - (The Urantia Book, 60:3.7)
65,000,000 BC - Many present-day trees first appear, including beech, oak, walnut, sycamore, maple, and modern palms. Fruits, grasses, and cereals are abundant. Suddenly the great family of flowering plants mutated. This new flora soon overspread the entire world - (The Urantia Book, 60:3.19)
65,000,000 BC - One of the greatest lava flows of all time. The deposition layers of these and preceding lava flows are to be found all over the Americas, North and South Africa, Australia, and parts of Europe - (The Urantia Book, 60:3.16)
60,000,000 BC - Though the land reptiles are on the the decline, dinosaurs continued as monarchs of the land, with more agile and active types of the smaller leaping kangaroo varieties of the carnivorous dinosaurs - (The Urantia Book, 60:3.19)
55,000,000 BC - The sudden appearance of the first of the true birds, a small pigeonlike creature which is the ancestor of all bird life. This is the third type of flying creature to appear on earth, and it springs directly from the reptilian group, not from the contemporary flying dinosaurs nor from the earlier types of toothed land birds. This becomes known as the age of birds as well as the declining age of reptiles - (The Urantia Book, 60:3.22)
55,000,000 BC - The fern forests are largely replaced by pine and other modern trees, including redwoods.- (The Urantia Book, 60:4.5)
50,000,000–35,000 BC - Extending from the rise of mammalian life to the retreat of the ice and on down to historic times is the last—the current—geologic period and is known as the Cenozoic or recent-times era - (The Urantia Book, 61:7.19; 59:0.6) [Date Discrepancy]
50,000,000 BC - In North America the placental type of mammals suddenly appear, and they constitute the most important evolutionary development up to this time. Previous orders of nonplacental mammals have existed, but this new type sprang directly and suddenly from the pre- existent reptilian ancestor whose descendants persisted on down through the times of dinosaur decline. The father of the placental mammals is a small, highly active, carnivorous, springing type of dinosaurs - (The Urantia Book, 61:1.2; 65:2.12)
45,000,000 BC - Mammalian life is evolving rapidly. A small reptilian, egg-laying type of mammal flourishes, and the ancestors of the later kangaroos roam Australia. There are small horses, fleet-footed rhinoceroses, tapirs with proboscises, primitive pigs, squirrels, lemurs, opossums, and several tribes of monkeylike animals. They are all small, primitive, and best suited to living among the forests of the mountain regions. A large ten foot tall ostrichlike bird develops, laying an egg nine by thirteen inches - (The Urantia Book, 61:1.9)
35,000,000–25,000,000 BC - By the close of this Oligocene period, the plant life, together with the marine life and the land animals, has very largely evolved and is present on earth much as today. Considerable specialization has subsequently appeared, but the ancestral forms of most living things are now alive - (The Urantia Book, 61:2.13)
30,000,000 BC - The modern types of mammals begin to make their appearance. Formerly the mammals have lived for the greater part in the hills, being of the mountainous types; suddenly evolution of the plains or hoofed type, the grazing species, begins. These grazers spring from an undifferentiated ancestor having 5 toes and 44 teeth, which perished before the end of the age - (The Urantia Book, 61:2.8)
20,000,000 BC - The golden age of mammals. The Bering Strait land bridge is up, and many groups of animals migrate to North America from Asia, including the four-tusked mastodons, short-legged rhinoceroses, and many varieties of the cat family. The first deer appeared, and North America was soon overrun by ruminants—deer, oxen, camels, bison, and several species of rhinoceroses. Elephants soon overran the entire world except Australia. For once the world was dominated by a huge animal with a brain sufficiently large to enable it to carry on. No animal the size of an elephant could have survived unless it had possessed a brain of large size and superior quality. In intelligence and adaptation the elephant is approached only by the horse and is surpassed only by man himself. Even so, of the fifty species of elephants in existence at the opening of this period, only two have survived. - (The Urantia Book, 61:3.4)
[Science note] - Scientists determined that the gorilla lineage evolved from a common ancestor of orangutans about 20 million BC.
12,000,000–2,000,000 BC - Designated the Pliocene era - (The Urantia Book, 61:4.7) [Date Discrepancy]
[Science note] - Scientists speculate that gorilla and chimpanzees split from a common ancestor about 12 million BC.
10,000,000 BC - Two great fresh-water lakes exist in western North America. The Sierras are elevating; Shasta, Hood, and Rainier are forming - (The Urantia Book, 61:4.2)
[Science note] - In 2007 Researchers in Kenya unveiled a 10-million-year-old jaw bone they believe belonged to a new species of great ape that could be the last common ancestor of gorillas, chimpanzees and humans. A Kenyan and Japanese team found the fragment, dating back to between 9.8 and 9.88 million years BC, along with 11 teeth. The fossils were unearthed in volcanic mud flow deposits in the northern Nakali region of Kenya.
[Science note] - Anthropologists believe that the first creatures in the human lineage lived about 9 million BC.
These discrepancies are explainable. See the explanatory links as they become available.
- Early History -
5,000,000 BC - The horse evolves as it now is and from North America migrates to all the world - (The Urantia Book, 61:4.5)
[Science note] - Scientists have determined that fossil evidence indicates that humanities upright stance began to evolve about 4 million BC.
[Science note] - A member of the Australopithecus afarensis left human-like footprints on volcanic ash in Laetoli, Kenya (Northern Tanzania), providing strong evidence of full-time bipedalism. Australopithecus afarensis lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million BC, and is considered one of the earliest hominins—those species that developed and comprised the lineage of Homo and Homo’s closest relatives after the split from the line of the chimpanzees.
[Science note] - In 2015 scientists reported the discovery of stone tools in Kenya that dated back to about 3.3 million BC, pushing back the previous record by some 700,000 years. Makers of the tools were contemporary with a species called either Kenyanthropus platyops or Australopithecus platyops.
[Science note] - In 1974. an international team at Hadar, Ethiopia, discovered a female skeleton in 3 million year old strata and named it Lucy. Subsequent finds there and at Laetoli, Tanzania, led to the naming of a new species: Australopithecus afarensis.
[Science note] - Geologists recognize that during the 2.5 million year span of the Pleistocene (2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago), numerous glacials, or significant advances of continental ice sheets in North America and Europe, have occurred at intervals of approximately 40,000-100,000 years. These long glacial periods were separated by more temperate and shorter interglacials. During interglacials, such as the present one, the climate warms and the tundra recedes polewards following the ice sheets. Forests return to areas that once supported tundra vegetation. Interglacials are identified on land or in shallow epicontinental seas by their paleontology. Floral and faunal remains of species pointing to temperate climate and indicating a specific age are used to identify particular interglacials. The interglacials and glacials coincide with cyclic changes in the Earth’s orbit. Three orbital variations contribute to interglacials. The first is a change in the Earth’s orbit around the sun, or eccentricity. The second is a shift in the tilt of the Earth’s axis, the obliquity. The third is precession, or wobbling motion of Earth’s axis.
[Timeline comment] - Scientists acknowledge that there have been at least five major ice ages in the earth’s past. The most recent Ice Age (the last one) began about 1.8 million years ago and lasting until about 9,700 BC Glaciers have covered large parts of both the northern and southern hemispheres. Paleontologists surmise that the first human ancestors appeared between seven million and five million BC, probably when some apelike creatures in Africa began to walk habitually on two legs. They were flaking crude stone tools by 2.5 million BC They migrated from Africa into Asia and Europe around two million BC The Urantia Book explains that human beings originated in the Mesopotamian peninsula from animal ancestry virtually indistinguishable from human beings. Due to ice ages, glaciers, mountains and land areas rising and subsiding, ocean levels changing, rivers changing courses the migrations of human beings written in pre-history would have been erased any number of times. Evidence of humans living in the equitorial regions would be much more prevalent than those living in the areas of greater geologicval change. So, the combination of human-like animals evolving before the first true human beings coupled with the geologic evolution of the earth have served to cover up much of human history.
[Science note] - Fossils of a partial skull and two jawbones found in South Africa’s Turkana Basin in 2007 dated to about 1.78 million years BC and indicated that at least 3 species of early humans co-existed.
[Science note] - Homo erectus dates from 1.6 million BC and had a brain capacity of some 1,000 ml, compared with the current size of 1,400 ml. He was the first to control fire and to move out of Africa into Europe and Asia.
1,500,000 BC - The first great glacier is retreating northward. Enormous quantities of snow are falling on Greenland and on the northeastern part of North America, and this eastern ice mass begins to flow southward. This is the second invasion of the ice - (The Urantia Book, 61:5.6)
1,500,000 BC - The great event of this glacial period is the evolution of primitive man. Slightly to the west of India, on land now under water and among the offspring of Asiatic migrants of the older North American lemur types, the dawn mammals suddenly appear. These small animals walk mostly on their hind legs, and they possess large brains in proportion to their size and in comparison with the brains of other animals. In the seventieth generation of this order of life a new and higher group of animals suddenly differentiats. These new mid-mammals—almost twice the size and height of their ancestors and possessing proportionately increased brain power—had only well established themselves when the Primates, the third vital mutation, suddenly appeared. (At this same time, a retrograde development within the mid-mammal stock gave origin to the simian ancestry; and from that day to this the human branch has gone forward by progressive evolution, while the simian tribes have remained stationary or have actually retrogressed.) - (The Urantia Book, 61:6.1)
[Timeline comment] - Scientists say that control of fire by early humans was achieved about 1.5 million years BC in Homo ergaster. The Urantia Book indicates that the earliest humans evolved approximately 1 million BC , that before (and after) that event there were a number of animals with skeletons similar to, if not identical to, human skeletons and that the only accurate way to differentiate between animals and humans is in the development of brain and mental abilities providing a spiritual connection that ties human beings to spiritual reality. Humans share the connection to the first 5 adjutant mind spirits with higher animals but only humans connect to the sixth and seventh adjutant mind spirits, worship and wisdom.(UB 36:5.3) Therefore the "control of fire by early humans" was initially control of fire by human-like animals.
[Science note] - 1.2 million years BC homo antecessor may be a common ancestor of humans and Neanderthals. At present estimate, humans have approximately 20,000–25,000 genes and share 99% of their DNA with the now extinct Neanderthal and 95–99% of their DNA with their closest living evolutionary relative, the chimpanzees. The human variant of the FOXP2 gene (linked to the control of speech) has been found to be identical in Neanderthals.
1,012,000 BC - The origin of the dawn mammals. The first direct ancestors to human beings. After almost nine hundred generations of development, covering about twenty-one thousand years from the origin of the dawn mammals, the Primates suddenly give birth to two remarkable creatures, ancestors to the first true human beings. The dawn mammals, springing from the North American lemur type, give origin to the mid-mammals, and these mid-mammals in turn produce the superior Primates, who become the immediate ancestors of the primitive human race. The Primates tribes are the last vital link in the evolution of man, but in less than five thousand years not a single individual of these extraordinary tribes is left - (The Urantia Book, 62:4.6-7; 62:2.1)
1,000,000 BC - The Mesopotamian dawn mammals, the direct descendants of the North American lemur type of placental mammal, suddenly appear. The immediate ancestors of mankind make their appearance by three successive and sudden mutations stemming from early stock of the lemur type of placental mammal. The direct mammalian ancestry of mankind takes place in southwestern Asia, on the borders of the eastern regions lying between the then expanded Mediterranean Sea and the elevating mountainous regions of the Indian peninsula. These lands to the west of India establish the ancestry of the human race.- (The Urantia Book, 62:0.1 -2; 62:2.1)
1,000,000 BC - The light from the Andromeda nebula, visible to the naked eye, left those distant suns almost one million years ago. - (The Urantia Book, 15:4.7)
[Science note] - In 2007 Spanish researchers unearthed a human tooth more than one million years old, which they estimated to be the oldest human fossil remain ever discovered in western Europe.
991,485 BC - The birth of the first two human beings. A mutation within the stock of the progressing Primates suddenly produces twin primitive human beings, named Andon and Fonta, the actual ancestors of mankind - (The Urantia Book, 63:0.1)
991,474 BC - Urantia is registered as an inhabited world. Andon and Fonta were 11 years old.Biologic evolution has once again achieved the human levels of will dignity; man has arrived - (The Urantia Book, 61:6.2; 62:5.1; 62:7.7; 63:0.1)
991,472 BC - The first child of Andon and Fonta is born; they name him Sontad. Sontad is the first creature to be born on Urantia who is wrapped in protective coverings at the time of birth. Andon and Fonta had 19 children, almost half a hundred grandchildren and 6 great-grandchildren. The human race has begun. - (The Urantia Book, 63:3.1)
981,389 - 981,320 BC - Onagar. The achievements of this master mind and spiritual leader of the pre-Planetary Prince days is a thrilling recital of the organization of primitive peoples into a real society. He instituted an efficient tribal government - (The Urantia Book, 63:6.8)
950,000 BC - Migration of the descendants of Andon and Fonta, the Andonites. To the west they passed over Europe to France and England. To the east, as far as Java, where their bones are so recently found—the so-called Java man—and then journeyed on to Tasmania - (The Urantia Book, 64:1.6)
900,000 BC - Large numbers of inferior tribes are arriving in England from southern France. These tribes are so largely mixed with the forest apelike creatures that they are scarcely human. They have no religion but are crude flintworkers and can kindle fire. They are followed in Europe by a somewhat superior and prolific people, whose descendants soon spread over the entire continent from the ice in the north to the Alps and Mediterranean in the south. These are the Heidleberg race. - (The Urantia Book, 64:2.3)
900,000 BC - The arts of Andon and Fonta and the culture of Onagar are vanishing from the face of the earth; culture, religion, and even flintworking are at their lowest ebb - (The Urantia Book, 64:2.1)
900,000 BC - A superior group with more Andonic genetics, the Foxhall people, already existed in western England and continued to hold onto some of the traditions of Andon as well as some of Onagar’s culture. They were the ancestors of the Eskimos - (The Urantia Book, 64:2.1)
[Science note] - In 2009 scientists reported finding advanced hand axes made about 900,000 BC in southeastern Spain. Similar Acheulean type limestone tools, flaked on both edges, were at another site nearby and dated to 760,000 BC.
850,000–849,000 BC - The Badonan tribes begin a warfare of extermination directed against their inferior and animalistic neighbors. This campaign for the extermination of inferiors brings about a slight improvement in the hill tribes of that age. The mixed descendants of this improved Badonite stock appear as an apparently new people - the Neanderthal race - (The Urantia Book, 64:3.5)
850,000–350,000 BC - The Neanderthalers are excellent fighters, and they traveled extensively. They gradually spread from the highland centers in northwest India to France on the west, China on the east, and even down into northern Africa. They dominated the world until the times of the migration of the evolutionary races of color - (The Urantia Book, 64:4.1)
800,000 BC - The Neanderthalers are great hunters; game is abundant; many species of deer, as well as elephants and hippopotamuses roamed over Europe. Cattle are plentiful; horses and wolves are everywhere. - (The Urantia Book, 64:4.2)
[Science note] - In 1996 a team of fossil hunters reported finding 800,000 year-old hominids from the Gran Dolino site in the Atapuerca Mountains in northern Spain. The date was older by 300,000 years than any other human remains in Europe. They called the new species Homo antecessor. Among modern characteristics were a prominent brow line and multiple roots for premolar teeth, characteristics of early hominids.
[Science note] - Indonesian and Dutch archaeologist have presented evidence that early hominids in Asia made it to the island of Flores in the Javan archipelago by 800,000 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists believe that the ancestors of the Neanderthals and Denisovans left Africa as far back as 800,000 BC and replaced or interbred with descendants of Homo erectus.
[Science note] - In 2009 scientists reported finding advanced hand axes made about 760,000 BC in southeastern Spain.
750,000 BC - The fourth ice sheet is well on its way south. at its height it reaches to southern Illinois, displacing the Mississippi River 50 miles to the west, and in the east it extends as far south as the Ohio River and central Pennsylvania - (The Urantia Book, 61:7.2; 64:4.4)
700,000 BC - The fourth glacier, the greatest of all in Europe, is in recession; men and animals are returning north. The climate is cool and moist, and primitive humans again thrive in Europe and western Asia. Gradually the forests spread north over land which has been so recently covered by the glacier - (The Urantia Book, 64:4.6)
700,000 BC - In their hearts, Lucifer and his first assistant, Satan, begin to array themselves against the Universal Father and his then vicegerent Son, Michael (The Urantia Book, 53:2.1)
[Science note] - Three 5 foot tall homo heidelbergensis (700,000-200,000 BC) left footprints in powdery volcanic ash solidified in Italy. Homo heidelbergensis may be a common ancestor of humans and Neanderthals. It is morphologically very similar to Homo erectus but Homo heidelbergensis had a larger brain-case, about 93% the size of that of Homo sapiens. The holotype of the species was tall, 6 feet, and more muscular than modern humans.
[Science note] - In 2005 scientists said that 32 black flint artifacts, found in river sediments in Pakefield in eastern England, date back 700,000 years and represent the earliest unequivocal evidence of human presence north of the Alps.
600,000 BC - Ice has reached its then northernmost point of retreat and, after a pause of a few thousand years, starts south again on its fifth excursion. - (The Urantia Book, 64:4.9)
[Science note] - Homo heidelbergensis lived in Africa, Europe and western Asia between 600,000-200,000 BC It was a very large hominin that developed a more advanced complement of cutting tools and may have hunted big game such as horses.
550,000 BC - The advancing glacier again pushes men and animals south. This time there is a wide belt of land stretching northeast into Asia and lying between the ice sheet and the then greatly expanded Black Sea extension of the Mediterranean. These times of the fourth and fifth glaciers provide the further spread of the crude culture of the Neanderthal races. For almost 250,000 years these primitive peoples drifted on, hunting and fighting, by spells improving in certain directions, but, on the whole, steadily retrogressing as compared with their superior Andonic ancestors - (The Urantia Book, 64:4.10-11)
500,000–400,000 BC - Spreading of the news of the arrival of the Prince’s staff. Much subsequent mythology grew out of the garbled legends of those early days when the Prince's staff were repersonalized as supermen - (The Urantia Book, 66:4.1)
500,000–200,000 BC - Planetary civilization progressed in a fairly normal manner for almost 300,000 years. Urantia progressed very satisfactorily in its planetary career up to the times of the Lucifer rebellion and the concurrent Caligastia betrayal. All subsequent history has been definitely modified by this catastrophic blunder as well as by the later failure of Adam and Eve to fulfill their planetary mission. See the Dalamatian teachings and the Law of Dalamatia below - (The Urantia Book, 66:8.3)
500,000–35,914 BC - Van is left on Urantia until the time of Adam, remaining as titular head of all superhuman personalities functioning on the planet - (The Urantia Book, 67:6.4)
500,000 BC - The Badonan tribes of the northwestern highlands of India become involved in another great racial struggle, only about one hundred families are left. But these survivors are the most intelligent and desirable of all the then living descendants of Andon and Fonta. Among these highland Badonites a man and woman living in the northeastern part of the region begin suddenly to produce an unusual family. This is the Sangik family, the ancestors and origin of all of the six colored races. The Sangik children, 19 in number, are not only intelligent above their fellows, but their skins manifested a unique tendency to turn various colors upon exposure to sunlight. Among these nineteen children are five red, two orange, four yellow, two green, four blue, and two indigo. These colors became more pronounced as the children grow older, and when these youths later mated with their fellow tribesmen, all of their offspring tended toward the skin color of the Sangik parent - (The Urantia Book, 64:5.1 -3; 61:7.4) Concurrent with the appearance of the 6 colored or Sangik races, Caligastia, the Planetary Prince, arrives on Urantia with his staff of 100. The staff of 100 is repersonalized on Urantia by a technique of the Life Carriers and a commission from the local universe of Avalon whereby a portion of human living material is transferred to the constructed bodies of the Jerusem volunteers. The 100 modified human donors became the personal attendants of the staff and both staff and attendants have the potential of immortality - (The Urantia Book, 66:2.7; 66:3.15)
500,000 BC - There are almost 500,000,000 primitive human beings on earth at this time, and they are well scattered over Europe, Asia, and Africa. The Prince's headquarters, the walled city of Dalamatia, established in Mesopotamia, is at about the center of world population. The Law of Dalamatia: 1. You shall not fear nor serve any God but the Father of all. 2. You shall not disobey the Father's Son, the world's ruler, nor show disrespect to his superhuman associates. 3. You shall not speak a lie when called before the judges of the people. 4. You shall not kill men, women, or children. 5. You shall not steal your neighbor's goods or cattle. 6. You shall not touch your friend's wife. 7. You shall not show disrespect to your parents or to the elders of the tribe. This was the law of Dalamatia for almost 300,000 years. And many of the stones on which this law was inscribed now lie beneath the waters off the shores of Mesopotamia and Persia. The Dalamatian teachings. The true concept of the First Source and Center was first promulgated by the one hundred members of Prince Caligastia's staff. This expanding revelation of Deity went on for more than three hundred thousand years until it was suddenly terminated by the planetary secession and the disruption of the teaching regime. Except for the work of Van, the influence of the Dalamatian revelation was practically lost to the whole world. Even the Nodites had forgotten this truth by the time of Adam's arrival - (The Urantia Book, 61:7.4; 66:0.1-2; 66:3.1; 66:7.9 -16; 92:4.5)
500,000 BC - The fifth advance of the ice - (The Urantia Book, 61:7.4)
500,000 BC - The Union of Days on Salvington is aware that all is not at peace in Lucifer's mind - (The Urantia Book, 53:2.3)
[Science note] - 500,000 BC is considered by anthropologists to be the time of divergence of Neanderthal and Denisovan lineages from a common ancestor.
499,967 - 450,000 BC - Origin of the primary midwayers. During the 33rd year in Dalamatia, number two and number seven of the Danite group discovered a phenomenon that proved to be the origin of the first of the primary midway creatures. The original corps consisted of 50,000 primary midwayers. A period of one-half year intervened between the production of each midwayer, and when 1000 such beings were born to each couple, no more were ever forthcoming - (The Urantia Book, 66:4.10; 77:1.5)
[Science note] - Homo erectus occupied the Longushan cave (China). The bones, found in the 1920s-1930s were dated about 400,000 BC and were popularly referred to as Peking Man.
[Science note] - In 2010 a Tel Aviv University team excavating Qesem cave in central Israel said teeth found in the cave are about 400,000 years old and resemble those of other remains of modern man, known scientifically as Homo sapiens. The earliest Homo sapiens remains found until now are half as old.
[Science note] - Scientists in 2013 reported mitochondrial DNA results from a Human thighbone found in Spain estimated to be 400,000 years old. The DNA showed a closer relation to Denisovans who lived in Siberia than to Neanderthals.
350,000 BC - The green race experienced a great revival of culture under the leadership of Fantad - (The Urantia Book, 64:6.17)
300,000 BC - Porshunta. The leader of the orange race, the master mind who ministered to them when their headquarters was at Armageddon - (The Urantia Book, 64:6.12)
300,000 BC - The main body of the yellow race entered China from the south as coastwise migrants - (The Urantia Book, 79:5.3)
250,000 BC - The sixth and last glaciation begins. This is the period of greatest snow deposition on the northern ice fields - (The Urantia Book, 61:7.6)
[Science note] - The hypothetical man Y-chromosomal Adam is estimated to have lived in East Africa about 250,000 BC He would be the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended.
200,000–199,050 BC - Great confusion reigns in Dalamatia. The complete and radical reorganization of the whole world is attempted; revolution displaced evolution as the policy of cultural advancement and racial improvement. Liberty is quickly translated into license by the half-evolved primitive people of those days - (The Urantia Book, 67:5.1)
200,000–199,000 BC - Within 1000 years after the rebellion Van has more than 350 advanced groups scattered abroad in the world. These outposts of civilization consisted largely of the descendants of the loyal Andonites slightly admixed with the Sangik races, particularly the blue men, and with the Nodites - (The Urantia Book, 67:6.6)
200,000 BC - 30 AD - The rebel forces of Lucifer are allowed to run a free course. The postrebellion era witnessed many unusual happenings. A great civilization—the culture of Dalamatia—was disintegrating. "The Nephilim (Nodites) were on earth in those days, and when these sons of the gods went in to the daughters of men and they bore to them, their children were the 'mighty men of old,' the 'men of renown."' While hardly "sons of the gods," Caligastia's staff and their early descendants were so regarded in those distant days; even their stature came to be magnified by tradition. This is the origin of the well-nigh universal folk tales and legends of the gods who came down to earth and there with the daughters of men begot an ancient race of heroes - (The Urantia Book, 53:5.3; 77:2.3)
200,000 BC - Proclamation of the Lucifer manifesto and the start of the Lucifer rebellion and the consequential spiritual ban of Norlatiadek for all the worlds of Satania - (The Urantia Book, 61:7.8; 50:6.5; 53:4.1)
200,000 BC - Michael petitions the Ancients of Days for authority to intern all personalities concerned in the Lucifer rebellion - (The Urantia Book, 53:9.3)
200,000 BC - Satan, Lucifer's assistant, makes one of his periodic inspection calls. He was, and still is, a Lanonandek Son of great brilliance. - (The Urantia Book, 67:1.1)
[Science note] - The hypothetical woman Mitochondrial Eve is estimated to have lived in East Africa between 200,000 and 99,000 BC.
[Science note] - Scientists believe that the Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens split from a common ancestor about 200,000 BC DNA research in 2008 indicated that shortly after this time Homo Sapiens split into 2 groups. Most people represented one group, while the bushmen of southern Africa represented the other.
[Science note] - In 2010 Israeli archaeologists found shards of flint scattered around a fire pit in a cave near Tel Aviv dating to about 200,000 BC They said the shards might be the world's oldest known disposable knives.
[Science note] - Anthropologists date the first appearance of homo sapiens in Africa at about 200,000 BC.
199,838 BC - (162 years after the outbreak of the Caligastia's rebellion) A tidal wave swept up over Dalamatia, and the planetary headquarters sank beneath the waters of the sea, and this land did not again emerge until almost every vestige of the noble culture of those splendid ages had been obliterated - (The Urantia Book, 67:5.4)
[Science note] - Anthropologists date the oldest homo sapiens fossil, from Omo, Ethiopia at about 195,000 BC.
190,000 BC - Practically all the gains of the Prince's administration have been effaced; the races of the world are little better off than if this misguided Son had never come to Urantia. Only among the Nodites and the Amadonites is there persistence of the traditions of Dalamatia and the culture of the Planetary Prince. The pure-line Nodites are a magnificent race, but they gradually mingle with the evolutionary peoples of earth, and before long great deterioration has occurred. They have lost ground to the point where their average length of life is little more than that of the evolutionary races - (The Urantia Book, 73:1.2; 77:2.9)
180,000 BC - The Melchizedeks begin to teach that the good resulting from Lucifer's folly has come to equal the evil incurred - (The Urantia Book, 54:6.6)
[Science note] - In France Neanderthals created two stone rings in a cave in Bruniquel. The oval structures, measuring 172 and 25 square feet, were discovered in 1990 and dated to about 176,500 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists estimate that humans first start to wear clothing at about 170,000 BC.
150,000 BC - Earthly affairs are so disorganized and retarded that the human race has gained very little over the general evolutionary status existing at the time of Caligastia's arrival 350,000 years previously - (The Urantia Book, 67:7.3)
150,000 BC - The sixth and last glacier reached its farthest points of southern extension, the western ice sheet crossing just over the Canadian border; the central coming down into Kansas, Missouri, and Illinois; the eastern sheet advancing south and covering the greater portion of Pennsylvania and Ohio. This glacier sent forth many tongues, or ice lobes, which carved out the present- day lakes, great and small. During its retreat the North American system of Great Lakes is produced. These bodies of water did, at different times, empty first into the Mississippi valley, then eastward into the Hudson valley, and finally by a northern route into the St. Lawrence 37,000 years ago. - (The Urantia Book, 61:7.9-10)
[Science note] - Geologists date the peak of the Eemian Stage interglacial period at about 125,000 BC.
[Science note] - Geologists determine that the Abbassia Pluvial in North Africa—the Sahara desert region—is wet and fertile at about 125,000 BC.
100,000 BC - End of the orange race. The last great struggle between the orange and the green men occurred in the region of the lower Nile valley in Egypt. This long-drawn-out battle was waged for almost one hundred years, and at its close very few of the orange race are left alive. The shattered remnants of these people are absorbed by the green and by the later arriving indigo races - (The Urantia Book, 64:6.13)
100,000 BC - Singlangton assumed the leadership of the yellow race and proclaimed the worship of the "One Truth." - (The Urantia Book, 64:6.15)
100,000 BC - The decimated tribes of the red race are fighting with their backs to the retreating ice of the last glacier, and when the land passage to the West, over the Bering isthmus, became passable, these tribes were not slow in forsaking the inhospitable shores of the Asiatic continent - (The Urantia Book, 79:5.6)
85,000 BC - The comparatively pure remnants of the red race go en masse from Asia to North America, and shortly thereafter the Bering land isthmus sank, thus isolating them. The red race occupies the Americas, having been driven out of Asia over 50,000 years before the arrival of Adam - (The Urantia Book, 78:1.6; 64:6.5)
83,000 BC - The last of the pure red men depart from Asia, but the long struggle left its genetic imprint upon the victorious yellow race. The northern Chinese peoples, together with the Andonite Siberians, assimilated much of the red stock and are in considerable measure benefited - (The Urantia Book, 79:5.6)
[Science note] - Discovery of small perforated seashell beads at Taforalt in Morocco. At about 82,000 BCthey are the earliest evidence of personal adornment
80,000 BC - Shortly after the red race entered northwestern North America, the freezing over of the north seas and the advance of local ice fields on Greenland drove the Eskimo descendants of the Urantia aborigines to seek a new home; and they are successful, safely crossing the narrow straits which then separate Greenland from the northeastern land masses of North America. They reach the continent about 2100 years after the red race arrived in Alaska. Subsequently some of the mixed stock of the blue race journeyed westward and amalgamated with the later-day Eskimos, and this union was slightly beneficial to the Eskimo tribes - (The Urantia Book, 64:7.18)
[Science note] - Discovery of the earliest example of abstract or symbolic art (abouot 70,000 BC) at the Blombos cave, South Africa—stones are engraved with grid or cross-hatch patterns.
65,000–64,004 BC - Onamonalonton, the leader and spiritual deliverer of the American red race revives their worship of the "Great Spirit." Onamonalonton maintained his headquarters among the great redwood trees of California. Many of his later descendants have come down to modern times among the Blackfoot Indians - (The Urantia Book, 64:6.7)
[Science note] - The bow and arrow first replace the spear thrower in Africa in about 64,000 BC.
[Science note] - Discovery of the earliest needle made and used by Denisovans about 50,000 BC.
[Science note] - Scientists determine that the Sahara desert region was wet and fertile about 50,000-30,000 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists date the Chatelperronian culture in France at about 45,000–40,000 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists date the Cro-Magnon colonization of Europe at about 43,000-41,000 BC.
[Science note] - Home sapiens populations were living in Italy by about 41,000 BC.
40,000 BC - The Melchizedek receivers and the Life Carriers petitioned the Most Highs of Edentia asking that Urantia be inspected with a view to authorizing the dispatch of biologic uplifters, a Material Son and Daughter, Adam and Eve - (The Urantia Book, 73:0.1)
[Science note] - Anthropologists etermine that the independent Neanderthal lineage dies out between 40,000 and 25,000 BC.
[Science note] - Home sapiens in Germany were making flutes about 40,000 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists determine that Cro-Magnon developed in Europe in about 40,000 BC.
[Science note] - Paleolithic flutes discovered in Germany are dated about 40,000 BC.
[Science note] - The earliest evidence of advanced deep sea fishing technology at the Jerimalai cave site in East Timor—demonstrates high-level maritime skills and by implication the technology needed to make ocean crossings to reach Australia and other islands, as they were catching and consuming large numbers of big deep sea fish such as tuna about 40,000 BC.
[Science note] - Home sapiens populations were living in England by about 39,500 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists determine that the Denisova hominin lives in the Altai Mountains about 39,000 BC.
38,000 BC - present) - The ancient civilization of the yellow race has persisted down through the centuries. The civilization of the sons of Han comes the nearest of all to presenting an unbroken picture of continual progression right on down to the times of the twentieth century. The mechanical and religious developments of the white races have been of a high order, but they have never excelled the Chinese in family loyalty, group ethics, or personal morality - (The Urantia Book, 79:8.16)
[Science note] - Anthropologists date the first Aboriginal Australian settlements in Sydney, Perth and Melbourne at about 38,000-28,000 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists date the oldest known ritual cremation, the Mungo Lady, in Lake Mungo, Australia at about 38,000-18,000 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists date the extinction of Homo neanderthalensis at about 38,000 BC.
[Science note] - The oldest known figurative art. the zoomorphic Lowenmensch figurine, is dated by anthropologists to about 38,000 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists date the oldest known cave paintings. Red dots, hand stencils and animal figures in Altamira Cave, El Castillo, Spain at about 38,000 BC.
36,000 BC - Tabamantia, sovereign supervisor of the series of decimal or experimental worlds, comes to inspect the planet and, after his survey of racial progress, duly recommends that Urantia be granted Material Sons. At the time Adam was chosen to come to Urantia, he was employed, with his mate, in the trial-and-testing physical laboratories of Jerusem. For more than 15,000 years they have been directors of the division of experimental energy as applied to the modification of living forms. Long before this they had been teachers in the citizenship schools for new arrivals on Jerusem - (The Urantia Book, 73:0.3; 74:1.2)
35,994 - 35,992 BC - Locating the Garden of Eden. The committee on location is absent for almost 3 years. It then reports favorably concerning three possible locations: The first is an island in the Persian Gulf; the second, the river location subsequently occupied as the second garden; the third, a long narrow peninsula—almost an island—projecting westward from the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The committee almost unanimously favored the third selection. This site is chosen, and two years are occupied in transferring the world's cultural headquarters, including the tree of life, to this Mediterranean peninsula - (The Urantia Book, 73:3.1 -2)
35,914 - 33,797 BC - The "golden age" is a myth, but Eden was a fact - (The Urantia Book, 74:8.14)
35,914 BC - Adam and Eve, a Material Son and Daughter of the local system, arrive midseason unannounced at high noon to begin the difficult task of attempting to untangle the confused affairs of a planet retarded by rebellion and resting under the ban of spiritual isolation. From the time of their arrival ten days passed before they are re-created in dual human form for presentation as the world's new rulers - (The Urantia Book, 74:0.1)
35,914 BC - Birth of Adamson, the first-born of the violet race of Urantia, followed by his sister and Eveson, the second son of Adam and Eve - (The Urantia Book, 74:6.2)
35,907 BC - The Melchizedek receivers remained on duty for almost seven years after Adam's arrival before turning the administration of world affairs over to him and returning to Jerusem.- (The Urantia Book, 74:5.1)
35,900 BC - Adam and Eve portrayed the concept of the Father of all to the evolutionary peoples. But by 2500 BC mankind has largely lost sight of the revelation sponsored in the days of Eden - (The Urantia Book, 92:4.6)
(When human beings first appeared on the planet up until this time, a span of approximately 964,000 years, human beings had black hair and dark or black irises. Skin color diversified with the advent of the Sangik races at about 500,000 BC, but it wasn't until the beginning of the infusion of Adamic genetics into the evolutionary DNA that hair and eye color began to exhibit significant color variations.)
35,800 BC - After more than one hundred years of effort on Urantia, Adam is able to see very little progress outside the Garden; the world at large does not seem to be improving much. The realization of race betterment appears to be a long way off, and the situation seems so desperate as to demand something for relief not embraced in the original plans. At least that is what often passes through Adam's mind, and he so expresses himself many times to Eve. Adam and his mate are loyal, but they are isolated from their kind, and they are sorely distressed by the sorry plight of their world - (The Urantia Book, 75:0.1)
35,797 BC - The default of Adam and Eve. For more than 5 years plans are secretly matured by Eve. At last they have developed to the point where she consents to have a secret conference with Cano, the most brilliant mind and active leader of the near-by colony of friendly Nodites. The Garden civilization was overthrown. Adam and Eve lived in the Garden for one hundred and seventeen years when, through the impatience of Eve and the errors of judgment of Adam, they presumed to turn aside from the ordained way, speedily bringing disaster upon themselves and ruinous retardation upon the developmental progression of all Urantia - (The Urantia Book, 75:3.7)
35,794 BC - Adamson sets out in search of the land of his youthful dreams, the highland home in the north of Van and Amadon ; he is 120 years old at this time and has been the father of 32 pure-line children of the first garden - (The Urantia Book, 77:5.2)
35,791 BC - Adamson's party finds the object of their adventure, and among these people he discovers Ratta, 20 years old, who claims to be the last pure-line descendant of the Prince's staff, the last of her race, having no living brothers or sisters. She heard the story of Eden, how the predictions of Van and Amadon have really come to pass, and the recital of the Garden default. In a little more than three months Adamson and Ratta are married. and become partents to 67 children and the parents and grandparents of almost 2,000 secondary midwayers - (The Urantia Book, 77:5.5)
35,786 BC - The second garden. It required almost a full year for the caravan of Adam to reach the Euphrates River. Finding it in flood tide, they remained camped on the plains west of the stream almost 6 weeks before they made their way across to the land between the rivers which became the second garden, situated east of the southern shore of the Caspian Sea near the Kopet Dagh - (The Urantia Book, 75:5.9; 77:5.10; 78:1.3; 76:1.1)
35,786 BC - Birth of Cain, the mortal son of Eve, and Sansa, the mortal daughter of Adam, were both born before the Adamic caravan had reached its destination between the rivers in Mesopotamia. Laotta, the mother of Sansa, perished at the birth of her daughter; Eve suffered much but survived, owing to superior strength. Eve took Sansa, the child of Laotta, to her bosom, and she was reared along with Cain. Sansa grew up to be a woman of great ability. She became the wife of Sargan, the chief of the northern blue races, and contributed to the advancement of the blue men of those times - (The Urantia Book, 76:0.2; 76:2.1)
35,785 - 5,800 BC - The second Eden is the cradle of civilization for almost 30,000 years. In Mesopotamia the Adamic peoples held forth, sending out their progeny to the ends of the earth, and as amalgamated with the Nodite and Sangik tribes, are known as the Andites. From this region went those men and women who initiated the doings of historic times, and who have so enormously accelerated cultural progress - (The Urantia Book, 78:0.1)
35,785 BC - Abel is born, the first child of Adam and Eve to be born in the second garden - (The Urantia Book, 76:2.1)
35,785 BC - Birth of Seth, the eldest son of Adam and Eve born in the second garden. Seth was absorbed in the work of improving the spiritual status of his father's people, becoming the head of the new priesthood of the second garden. His son, Enos, founded the new order of worship, and his grandson, Kenan, instituted the foreign missionary service to the surrounding tribes, near and far - (The Urantia Book, 76:3.4)
35,776 BC - Cain turned upon Abel in wrath and slew him - (The Urantia Book, 76:2.5)
35,700–29,000 BC - The Adamsonites maintained a high culture for almost 7,000 years from the times of Adamson and Ratta. Later on they became admixed with the neighboring Nodites and Andonites and are also included among the "mighty men of old." And some of the advances of that age persisted to become a latent part of the cultural potential which later blossomed into European civilization - (The Urantia Book, 77:5.9)
35,518 BC - Death of Adamson - (The Urantia Book, 77:5.7)
35,000–15,000 BC - The culture of the second garden persisted, but it experienced a steady decline until the regeneration of the Sethite priesthood and the leadership of Amosad inaugurated a brilliant era. The massive waves of civilization which later spread over Eurasia immediately followed the great renaissance of the Garden consequent upon the extensive union of the Adamites with the surrounding mixed Nodites to form the Andites.
35,000 BC - The termination of the great ice age excepting in the polar regions and corresponding to the beginning of the Holocene or postglacial period - (The Urantia Book, 61:7.18)
[Science note] - In 2008 archaeologists unearthed tools dating back at least 35,000 years in a rock shelter in Australia's remote northwest, making it one of the oldest archaeological finds in that part of the country.
[Science note] - In 2004 archaeologists of the University of Tuebingen said a 35,000 BC flute made from a woolly mammoth's ivory tusk had been unearthed in a German cave and pieced together from 31 fragments. In 2009 a flute from about this same time, made from vulture bone, was displayed.
33,000 BC - While the blue race pervaded the European continent, there are scores of other racial types. The European blue races are already a highly blended people carrying strains of both red and yellow, while on the Atlantic coastlands and in the regions of present-day Russia they have absorbed a considerable amount of Andonite blood and to the south are in contact with the Saharan peoples - (The Urantia Book, 80:3.2)
33,000 BC - Beginning of a steady improvement in human musical appreciation - (The Urantia Book, 44:1.5)
[Science note] - archaeologists unearthed tools dating back at least to 33,000 BC in a rock shelter in Australia's remote northwest, making it one of the oldest archaeological finds in that part of the country.
32,000 BC - Submergence of the Garden of Eden. After the garden was vacated by Adam, it was occupied variously by the Nodites, Cutites, and the Suntites. It later became the dwelling place of the northern Nodites who opposed co-operation with the Adamites. The peninsula had been overrun by these lower-grade Nodites for almost 4000 years after Adam left the Garden when, in connection with the violent activity of the surrounding volcanoes and the submergence of the Sicilian land bridge to Africa, the eastern floor of the Mediterranean Sea sank, carrying down beneath the waters the whole of the Edenic peninsula. Concomitant with this vast submergence the coast line of the eastern Mediterranean was greatly elevated. The sinking was not sudden, several hundred years being required completely to submerge the entire peninsula - (The Urantia Book, 73:7.1)
[Science note] - Dating of the oldest known domesticated dog skulls show that they existed in both Europe and Siberia by about 31,000 BC.
30,000–10,000 BC - Epoch-making racial mixtures are taking place throughout southwestern Asia. The highland inhabitants of Turkestan are a virile and vigorous people. To the northwest of India much of the culture of the days of Van persisted. Still to the north of these settlements the best of the early Andonites have been preserved. And both of these superior races of culture and character are absorbed by the northward-moving Adamites - (The Urantia Book, 78:3.4)
[Science note] - In 2010 scientists reported that genetic material, pulled from a pinky finger bone found in a Siberian cave dating to about 30,000 BC, showed a new and unknown type of pre-human being living about this time alongside modern humans and Neanderthals.
28,000 BC - Extinction of fandors, the passenger birds for humans - (The Urantia Book, 66:5.6)
27,000–2,000 BC - The heart of Eurasia is predominantly, though diminishingly, Andite. In the lowlands of Turkestan the Andites make the westward turning around the inland lakes into Europe, while from the highlands of this region they infiltrate eastward. Eastern Turkestan (Sinkiang) and, to a lesser extent, Tibet are the ancient gateways through which these peoples of Mesopotamia penetrated the mountains to the northern lands of the yellow race. The Andite infiltration of India proceeded from the Turkestan highlands into the Punjab and from the Iranian grazing lands through Baluchistan - (The Urantia Book, 79:1.1)
[Science note] - Anthropologists discover that New Guinea is populated by colonists from Asia or Australia in about 26,500 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists date the oldest known twisted rope at about 26,000 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists uncover the oldest known pottery—used to make figurines rather than cooking or storage vessels 26,000-22,000 BC.
[Science note] - Anthropologists determine that harpoons and saws were invented in Europe about 26,000-18,000 BC.
25,000–15,000 BC - Racial distributions, associated with extensive climatic changes, set the world stage for the inauguration of the Andite era of civilization - (The Urantia Book, 78:3.9)
25,000–5,000 BC - The highest mass civilization on Urantia is in central and northern China. The yellow race is first to achieve a racial solidarity—the first to attain a large-scale cultural, social, and political civilization - (The Urantia Book, 79:6.8)
[Science note] - Anthropologists determine that people around the world use fibers to make baby carriers, clothes, bags, baskets, and nets in 24,000 BC.
23,000 BC - As the purer elements of the Adamites penetrated northward, they became less and less Adamic until, by the times of their occupation of Turkestan, they became thoroughly mingled with the other races, particularly the Nodites. Very few of the pure-line violet peoples ever penetrated far into Europe or Asia - (The Urantia Book, 78:3.3)
23,000 BC - The earliest Andite peoples took origin in the regions adjacent to Mesopotamia and consisted of a blend of the Adamites and Nodites - (The Urantia Book, 78:4.2)
23,000 BC - Between the rivers of Mesopotamia in southwestern Asia there existed the potential of a great civilization, the possibility of the spread to the world of the ideas and ideals which were salvaged from the days of Dalamatia and the times of Eden - (The Urantia Book, 78:1.12)
23,000 BC - For almost 20,000 years the Andonites have been pushed farther and farther to the north of central Asia by the Andites - (The Urantia Book, 80:9.6)
[Science note] - 23,000 BC: a hamlet consisting of huts built of rocks and of mammoth bones is founded in what is now Dolni Vestonice in Moravia in the Czech Republic. This is the oldest human permanent settlement that has yet been found.
[Science note] - Researches in 2012 reported that DNA evidence has indicated the presence of foreign DNA indicating interbreeding about 20,000 BC between humans and an unknown sister species called “a Neanderthal sibling species in Africa.” Humans apparently shared the planet with this cousin species for over 150,000 years.
20,000 BC - The population of western India has already become tinged with the Adamic blood, and never in the history of Urantia did any one people combine so many different races. As it developed, the red race was destroying itself in the Americas, the blue race was disporting itself in Europe, and the early descendants of Adam (and most of the later ones) exhibited little desire to mingle with the darker colored peoples, whether in India, Africa, or elsewhere - (The Urantia Book, 79:2.3)
[Science note] - Evolution of light skin in Europeans is believed to have occurred 20,000-10,000 BC.
19,000 BC - The Adamites are a real nation numbering 4,500,000 and already they have poured forth millions of their offspring into the surrounding peoples - (The Urantia Book, 78:2.5)
18,000 BC - The ancestors of the Chinese have built up a dozen strong centers of primitive culture and learning, especially along the Yellow River and the Yangtze. These centers began to be reinforced by the arrival of a steady stream of improved blended peoples from Sinkiang and Tibet - (The Urantia Book, 79:6.5)
[Science note] - Oldest pottery storage/cooking vessels from China discovered by archaeologists, dated to 18,000 BC.
16,000 BC - A company of one hundred Sethite priests enters India and very nearly achieves the religious conquest of the western half of that polyglot people. Within 5,000 years, however, their doctrines of the Paradise Trinity has degenerated into the triune symbol of the fire god - (The Urantia Book, 79:3.4)
15,000–6,000 BC - The Andite migrations - (The Urantia Book, 78:3.9)
15,000 BC - Increasing population pressure throughout Turkestan and Iran provoke the first really extensive Andite movement toward India. For over fifteen centuries Andites poured in through the highlands of Baluchistan, spreading out over the valleys of the Indus and Ganges and slowly moving southward into the Deccan - (The Urantia Book, 79:2.4)
15,000 BC - The Chinese are aggressive militarists; they have not been weakened by an overreverence for the past, and numbering less than 12,000,000, they formed a compact body speaking a common language - (The Urantia Book, 79:6.9)
15,000 BC - As the period of the early Adamic migrations ends, there are already more descendants of Adam in Europe and central Asia than anywhere else in the world, even than in Mesopotamia. The European blue races have been largely infiltrated. Russia and Turkestan are occupied throughout their southern stretches by a great reservoir of the Adamites mixed with Nodites, Andonites, and red and yellow Sangiks. Southern Europe and the Mediterranean fringe are occupied by a mixed race of Andonite and Sangik peoples—orange, green, and indigo—with a sprinkling of the Adamite stock. Asia Minor and the central-eastern European lands are held by tribes that are predominantly Andonite - (The Urantia Book, 78:3.5)
15,000 BC - It is the great climatic and geologic changes in northern Africa and western Asia that terminate the early migrations of the Adamites, barring them from Europe by the expanded Mediterranean and diverting the stream of migration north and east into Turkestan. By the time of the completion of these land elevations and associated climatic changes civilization has settled down to a world-wide stalemate except for the cultural ferments and biologic reserves of the Andites still confined by mountains to the east in Asia and by the expanding forests in Europe to the west - (The Urantia Book, 81:1.2)
[Science note] - Anthropologists determine that the first colonization of North America began in 14,500-11,000 BC.
13,000 BC - The Andites, in considerable numbers, are traversing the pass of Ti Tao and spreading out over the upper valley of the Yellow River among the Chinese settlements of Kansu. They penetrated eastward to Honan, where the most progressive settlements are situated - (The Urantia Book, 79:7.1)
13,000 BC - The Alpine forests spread extensively. The European hunters are being driven to the river valleys and to the seashores by the same climatic changes that turn the world's happy hunting grounds into dry and barren deserts. These great and relatively sudden climatic modifications drive the races of Europe to change from open-space hunters to herders, and in some measure to fishers and tillers of the soil - (The Urantia Book, 80:3.8)
<>13,000 BC - Further biologic retrogression. During the previous hunting era the superior tribes intermarried with the higher types of war captives and unvaryingly destroyed those deemed inferior. As they establish settlements and engaged in agriculture and commerce, they begin to save many of the mediocre captives as slaves. The progeny of these slaves subsequently greatly deteriorate the whole Cro-Magnon type. This retrogression of culture continued until it received a fresh impetus from the east when the final and en masse invasion of the Mesopotamians swept over Europe, quickly absorbing the Cro-Magnon type and culture and initiating the civilization of the white races about 10,000 BC - (The Urantia Book, 80:3.9)
[Science note] - Paleontologists determine that the woolly rhinoceros goes extinct 13,000 BC.
[Science note] - The arliest supposed date for the domestication of the pig is 13,000-12,700 BC.
[Science note] - Scientists establish that the Humid Period begins in the North African region that would later become the Sahara. It is wet and fertile, and the aquifers are full. 12,800 BC.
[Science note] - In 2008 archaeologists found evidence from Monte Verde, Chile, indicating that a small band of people inhabited the area in 12,000 BC.
12,000 BC - The ancestors of the Japanese people are driven off the mainland, dislodged by a powerful southern-coastwise thrust of the northern Chinese tribes. Their final exodus is not so much due to population pressure as to the initiative of a chieftain whom they came to regard as a divine personage - (The Urantia Book, 79:6.3)
12,000 BC - The climatic destruction of the rich, open grassland hunting and grazing grounds of Turkestan compels the men of those regions to resort to new forms of industry and crude manufacturing. Some turn to the cultivation of domesticated flocks, others became agriculturists or collectors of water-borne food, but the higher type of Andite intellects chose to engage in trade and manufacture. It even becomes the custom for entire tribes to dedicate themselves to the development of a single industry. From the valley of the Nile to the Hindu Kush and from the Ganges to the Yellow River, the chief business of the superior tribes is the cultivation of the soil, with commerce as a side line - (The Urantia Book, 81:3.1)
12,000 BC - Three quarters of the Andite stock of the world is resident in northern and eastern Europe, and when the later and final exodus from Mesopotamia takes place, 65 per cent of these last waves of emigration enter Europe - (The Urantia Book, 78:5.4)
12,000 BC - A tribe of Andites migrates to Crete. This is the only island settled so early by such a superior group, and it is almost 2,000 years before the descendants of these mariners spread to the neighboring isles. This group is the narrow-headed, smaller-statured Andites who have intermarried with the Vanite division of the northern Nodites. They are all under 6 feet in height and have been literally driven off the mainland by their larger though inferior fellows. These emigrants to Crete are highly skilled in textiles, metals, pottery, plumbing, and the use of stone for building material. They engage in writing and carry on as herders and agriculturists - (The Urantia Book, 80:7.2)
12,000 BC - One hundred and thirty-two Andites (Dravidians and Aryans) embarked in a fleet of small boats from Japan, eventually reaching South America. By intermarriage with the natives of the Andes they established the ancestry of the later rulers of the Incas. The islands of the Polynesian group were more numerous and larger then than now, and these Andite sailors, together with some who followed them, biologically modified the native groups in transit. Many flourishing centers of civilization, such as Easter Island, grew up on these now submerged lands as a result of Andite penetration. But this group of 132 who navigated the Pacific were the only Andites to ever reach the mainland of the Americas. (The Urantia Book, 78:5.7)
[Science note] - The end of the last glacial period, climate warms, glaciers recede dated by geologists at 11,000-8,000 BC.
[Science note] - 11,000 BC: A major outbreak occurs on Lake Agassiz, which at the time could have been the size of the current Black Sea and the largest lake on Earth. Much of the lake drains into the Arctic Ocean through the Mackenzie river.
10,000 BC - Origin of the Greeks. Almost 2,000 years after the settlement of Crete a group of the tall descendants of Adamson make their way over the northern islands to Greece, coming almost directly from their highland home north of Mesopotamia. These progenitors of the Greeks were led westward by Sato, a direct descendant of Adamson and Ratta - (The Urantia Book, 80:7.3)
10,000 BC - A second attempt to erect the tower of Babel. The mixed races of the Andites (Nodites and Adamites) undertake to raise a new temple on the ruins of the first structure, but there is not sufficient support for the enterprise; it fell of its own pretentious weight - (The Urantia Book, 77:3.9)
10,000 BC - The Andites have been absorbed but the whole mass of the people have been markedly improved by this absorption - (The Urantia Book, 79:2.6)
10,000 BC - The blending of the Andite conquerors of India with the native stock eventually results in that mixed people called Dravidian. The earlier and purer Dravidians possessed a great capacity for cultural achievement, which is continuously weakened as their Andite inheritance becomes progressively attenuated. This composite stock immediately produced the most versatile civilization then on earth. - (The Urantia Book, 79:3.1)
10,000 BC - The Chinese people begin to build cities and engage in manufacture subsequent to the climatic changes in Turkestan and the arrival of the later Andite immigrants. The infusion of this new blood did not add so much to the civilization of the yellow race as it stimulated the further and rapid development of the latent tendencies of the superior Chinese people - (The Urantia Book, 79:7.5)
10,000 BC - Independent cities are dawning. These primitive trading and manufacturing cities are always surrounded by zones of agriculture and cattle raising. - (The Urantia Book, 81:3.3)
10,000 BC - For several thousand years cremation of the dead was almost universal throughout Scandinavia. This explains why remains of the earlier white races, although buried all over Europe, are not to be found—only their ashes in stone and clay urns. These white men also built dwellings; they never lived in caves. And again this explains why there is so little evidence of the white race's early culture, although the preceding Cro-Magnon type is well preserved where it has been securely sealed up in caves and grottoes. As it were, one day in northern Europe there was a primitive culture of the retrogressing Danubians and the blue race and the next that of a suddenly appearing and superior white race - (The Urantia Book, 80:9.4)
[Science note] - Archaeologists discover that Jericho has evidence of settlement dating back to 10,000 BC Jericho was a popular camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherer groups, who left a scattering of crescent microlith tools behind them.
[Science note] - The earliest date scientists suggest for the domestication of the goat is 10,000 BC.
[Science note] - 10,000 BC: Geologists establish that land ice leaves Denmark and southern Sweden.
[Science note] - Excavations began at the Gobekli Tepe archaeological site in Turkey in 1994. The site already reveals 50 engraved stone monoliths, some of them dating back to 10,000 BC, that are at least 6,000 years older than Stonehenge and the Egyptian pyramids. A full excavation to the bottom of the site has not yet occurred, and only a small percentage of the site has been uncovered. The evidence suggests that the complex of round rooms with two especially large pillars in the middle were built for religious rather than practical purposes. Gobekli Tepe is widely acknowledged as one of the most important and mysterious archaeological sites in the world.
9,000 BC - The widespread use of metals is a feature of this era of the early industrial and trading cities. A bronze culture in Turkestan dates before 9000 BC, and the Andites early learned to work in iron, gold, and copper, as well. But conditions are very different away from the more advanced centers of civilization. There are no distinct periods, such as the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages; all three existed at the same time in different localities - (The Urantia Book, 81:3.4)
9,000 BC - For more than 7,000 years, down to the end of the Andite migrations, the religious status of the inhabitants of India is far above that of the world at large - (The Urantia Book, 79:3.5)
[Science note] - The earliest dates suggested for the domestication of the sheep by scientists is 9,000-7,000 BC.
[Science note] - Giant short-faced bears and giant ground sloths go extinct. Equidae goes extinct in North America. 9,000 BC.
[Science note] - 9,000–7,000 BC: Byblos appears to have been settled in approximately 8800-7000 BC Neolithic remains of some buildings can be observed at the site.
[Science note] - The earliest supposed date for the domestication of cattle is 8,500 BC.
[Science note] - An ancient Greek city on Ionia’s coast, Ephesus (Izmir Province, Turkey) was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists. It was best known for its Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, which was largely destroyed in 268 AD by the Goths.
8,000–6,000 BC - The last three waves of Andites poured out of Mesopotamia. These three great waves of culture are forced out of Mesopotamia by the pressure of the hill tribes to the east and the harassment of the plainsmen of the west. The migratory conquests of the Andites continue on down to their final dispersions. As they poured out of Mesopotamia, they continuously deplete the biologic reserves of their homelands while markedly strengthening the surrounding peoples. And to every nation to which they journeyed, they contributed humor, art, adventure, music, and manufacture. They are skillful domesticators of animals and expert agriculturists. Their presence usually improves the religious beliefs and moral practices of the older races. And so the culture of Mesopotamia quietly spread out over Europe, India, China, Northern Africa, and the Pacific Islands - (The Urantia Book, 78:6.1; 78:5.8)
8,000 BC - The slowly increasing aridity of the highland regions of central Asia begin to drive the Andites to the river bottoms and the seashores. This increasing drought not only drives them to the valleys of the Nile, Euphrates, Indus, and Yellow Rivers, but it produces a new development, a new class, the traders - (The Urantia Book, 79:1.3)
[Science note] - 8,000-7,000 BC: In northern Mesopotamia, now northern Iraq, cultivation of barley and wheat begins. At first they are used for beer, gruel, and soup, eventually for bread. In early agriculture at this time, the planting stick is used, but it is replaced by a primitive plow in subsequent centuries.
[Science note] - 8,000-6,000 BC: The Post Glacial Sea Level Rise decelerates, slowing the submersion of landmasses that had taken place over the previous 10,000 years.
[Science note] - In 8,000 BC the Quaternary extinction event, which has been ongoing since the mid-Pleistocene, concludes. Many of the ice age megafauna go extinct, including the megatherium, woolly rhinoceros, Irish elk, cave bear, cave lion, and the last of the sabre-toothed cats. The mammoth goes extinct in Eurasia and North America, but is preserved in small island populations until about 1,650 BC.
[Science note] - Neolithic Subpluvial in North Africa: The Sahara desert region supports a savanna-like environment. Lake Chad is larger than the current Caspian Sea. Anthropologists determine that an African culture develops across the current Sahel region in about 7,500-3,900 BC.
[Science note] - 7,500 BC: Earliest supposed date for the domestication of the cat.
[Science note] - Anthropologists determne the first human settlement in Amman, Jordan; 'Ain Ghazal Neolithic settlement was built spanning over an area of 15 hectares 7,200 BC.
7,000–6,000 BC - Ancestors to the Nordic races. The whole inhabited world, outside of China and the Euphrates region, has made very limited cultural progress for 10,000 years when the hard-riding Andite horsemen made their appearance in the sixth and seventh millenniums before Christ. As they moved westward across the Russian plains, absorbing the best of the blue race and exterminating the worst, they became blended into one people. These are the ancestors of the so-called Nordic races, the forefathers of the Scandinavian, German, and Anglo-Saxon peoples - (The Urantia Book, 80:4.5)
7,000 BC - The Dravidians are among the earliest peoples to build cities and to engage in an extensive export and import business, both by land and sea. Camel trains make regular trips to distant Mesopotamia; Dravidian shipping is pushing coastwise across the Arabian Sea to the Sumerian cities of the Persian Gulf and is venturing on the waters of the Bay of Bengal as far as the East Indies. An alphabet, together with the art of writing, is imported from Sumeria by these seafarers and merchants - (The Urantia Book, 79:3.7)
[Science note] - Jiahu culture began in China in 7,000 BC.
[Science note] - A sudden decrease of global temperatures, likely caused by the final collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet, leads to drier conditions in East Africa and Mesopotamia in 6,200–6,000 BC.
6,000 BC - The Sumerians. When the last Andite dispersion broke the biologic backbone of Mesopotamian civilization, a small minority of this superior race remained in their homeland near the mouths of the rivers. These are the Sumerians. They are largely Andite in extraction, though their culture is more exclusively Nodite in character, and they cling to the ancient traditions of Dalamatia. The Sumerians of the coastal regions are the last of the Andites in Mesopotamia. But the races of Mesopotamia are already thoroughly blended by this late date, as is evidenced by the skull types found in the graves of this era - (The Urantia Book, 78:8.1; 77:4.7)
6,000 BC - Sumerian Legends. The lingering traditions of ancient advanced civilizations, of paradises on earth, lent substance to the dream of a onetime "golden age" of the dawn of the races, helping confirm the belief that mankind had origin in a special creation in perfection. The elaborate records left by the Sumerians describe the site of one remarkable ancient settlement located on the Persian Gulf near the earlier city of Dilmun. The Egyptians called this city of ancient glory Dilmat. And archaeologists have found these ancient Sumerian clay tablets which tell of this earthly paradise "where the Gods first blessed mankind with the example of civilized and cultured life." These tablets, descriptive of the city of Dilmun which was initially established about 200,000 BC, are now silently resting on the dusty shelves of museums - (The Urantia Book, 77:4.8; 89:2.3)
[Science note] - Evidence of habitation at the current site of Aleppo dates to about 6,000 BC, although excavations at Tell Qaramel show the area was inhabited about 11,000 BC Carbon-14 dating at Tell Ramad, on the outskirts of Damascus, suggests that the site may have been occupied since the second half of the seventh millennium BC, possibly around 6,300 BC However, evidence of settlement in the wider Barada basin dating back to 9,000 BC exists.
[Science note] - 5,500 BC: Copper smelting in evidence in Plocnik and other locations.
[Science note] - 5,200–4,000 BC: Ghar Dalam phase on Malta. First farming settlements on the island.
5,000 BC - The evolving white races are dominant throughout all of northern Europe, including northern Germany, northern France, and the British Isles. Central Europe is for sometime controlled by the blue race and the round-headed Andonites. - (The Urantia Book, 80:5.8; 80:9.1)
5,000 BC - The three purest strains of Adam's descendants are in Sumeria, Northern Europe, and Greece. The whole of Mesopotamia is being slowly deteriorated by the stream of mixed races which filtered in from Arabia. And the coming of these inferior tribes contributed further to the scattering abroad of the biologic and cultural residue of the Andites - (The Urantia Book, 80:7.9)
5,000 BC - A host of progressive Mesopotamians moved out of the Euphrates valley and settled upon the island of Cyprus; this civilization is wiped out about 2,000 years subsequently by the barbarian hordes from the north - (The Urantia Book, 80:7.10)
5,000 BC - The Andites of Turkestan are the first peoples to extensively domesticate the horse, and this is another reason why their culture is for so long predominant. Mesopotamian, Turkestan, and Chinese farmers have begun the raising of sheep, goats, cows, camels, horses, fowls, and elephants. They employed as beasts of burden the ox, camel, horse, and yak - (The Urantia Book, 81:2.12)
5,000 BC - The horse is in general use throughout civilized and semicivilized lands. These later races not only have the domesticated horse but also various sorts of wagons and chariots. Ages before, the wheel has been used, but now vehicles so equipped became universally employed both in commerce and war - (The Urantia Book, 81:3.6)
5,000 BC - For thousands of years after the submergence of the first Eden the mountains about the eastern coast of the Mediterranean and those to the northwest and northeast of Mesopotamia continued to rise. This elevation of the highlands is greatly accelerated and this, together with greatly increased snowfall on the northern mountains, caused unprecedented floods each spring throughout the Euphrates valley. These spring floods grew increasingly worse so that eventually the inhabitants of the river regions are driven to the eastern highlands. For almost 1,000 years scores of cities are practically deserted because of these extensive deluges. With the later diminution of these floods, Ur became the center of the pottery industry. Ur is on the Persian Gulf, the river deposits having since built up the land to its present limits - (The Urantia Book, 78:7.2; 78:8.2)
5,000 BC - The reckoning of time by the 28 day month persisted long after the days of Adam. The Egyptians undertook to reform the calendar with great accuracy, introducing the year of 365 days - (The Urantia Book, 77:2.12)
[Science note] - 5,000 BC: late Neolithic civilizations, invention of the wheel and spread of proto-writing. The oldest golden treasure found in Varna Necropolis, Bulgaria.
4,000 BC - The Chinese are still keen students and aggressive in their pursuit of truth - (The Urantia Book, 79:6.11)
[Science note] - Civilizations develop in the Mesopotamia/Fertile crescent region (around the location of modern-day Iraq). Earliest supposed dates for the domestication of the horse and for the domestication of the chicken, 4,000 BC.
[Science note] - 3,900 BC: A rapid and intense aridification event, which likely started the current Sahara Desert dry phase and a population increase in the Nile Valley due to migrations from nearby regions.
[Science note] - Mass graves at Tell Brak in Syria, 3,800-3,600 BC.
[Science note] - Minoan culture begins on Crete, 3,700-3,600 BC.
[Science note] - Uruk period in Sumer. First evidence of mummification in Egypt, 3,600-3,500 BC.
[Science note] - 3,300 BC: Bronze Age begins in the Near East Newgrange is built in Ireland. Hakra Phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins in the Indian Sub-continent.
[Science note] - 3,200 BC: Writing is invented in Sumer, triggering the beginning of history.
[Science note] - Surrounded by hundreds of nearby burial mounds, Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England. archaeologists postulate that the site was built between 3,000-2,000 BC.
3,000 BC - A chance meeting occurred between an Indian tribe and a lone Eskimo group on the southeastern shores of Hudson Bay. These two tribes found it difficult to communicate with each other, but soon they intermarried with the result that these Eskimos were eventually absorbed by the more numerous red race. This represents the only contact of the North American red race with any other human race down to about 1,000 years ago, when white men first chanced to land on the Atlantic coast - (The Urantia Book, 64:7.19)
3,000 BC - It is a fallacy to presume to classify the white peoples as Nordic, Alpine, and Mediterranean. There has been altogether too much blending to permit such a grouping. At one time there is a fairly well-defined division of the white race into such classes, but widespread intermingling has since occurred, and it is no longer possible to identify these distinctions with any clarity. The ancient social groups are no more of one race than are the current inhabitants of North America - (The Urantia Book, 80:9.15)
3,000 BC - Increasing aridity drove the Andonites back into Turkestan. This Andonite push southward continued for over 1,000 years and, splitting around the Caspian and Black seas, penetrated Europe by way of both the Balkans and the Ukraine - (The Urantia Book, 80:9.6)
3,000 BC - Though making progress intellectually, the human races slowly lose ground spiritually. The concept of God has grown very hazy - (The Urantia Book, 93:1.1)
[Science note] - In 2008 a team of German and Peruvian archaeologists reported the discovery of a ceremonial plaza near Peru's north-central coast dating to 3,000 BC.
[Science note] - In Britain timber temples were constructed about 3,000 BC prior to stone circles. Remains of one was found in 1997 at Stanton Drew in Somerset that measured 443 feet on the outer diameter.
[Science note] - In 2009 archaeologists identified a site named "Bluehenge," dating to about 3,000 BC, about a mile away from Stonehenge. It was named after the color of the 27 Welsh stones that were laid to make up a path.
[Science note] - Archaeologists believe Egypt's large pyramids are the work of the Old Kingdom society that rose to prominence in the Nile Valley after 3,000 BC Historical analysis tells us that the Egyptians built the Giza Pyramids in a span of 85 years between 2,589-2,504 BC.
[Science note] - The Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt, is a limestone statue of a reclining sphinx, a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human. Facing directly from West to East, it stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza. The face of the Sphinx is generally believed to represent the Pharaoh Khafre. It measures 238 feet long from paw to tail, 66.3 ft high from the base to the top of the head and 62.6 feet wide at its rear haunches. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture in Egypt and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the Pharaoh Khafre between 2,558–2,532 BC).
2,500–2,000 BC - The second Andite penetration of India is the Aryan invasion during a period of almost five hundred years in the middle of the third millennium before Christ. This migration marked the terminal exodus of the Andites from their homelands in Turkestan - (The Urantia Book, 79:4.1)
2,500 BC - The Sumerians suffered severe reverses at the hands of the northern Suites and Guites. Lagash, the Sumerian capital built on flood mounds, fell. Erech held out for thirty years after the fall of Akkad. By the time of the establishment of the rule of Hammurabi the Sumerians had become absorbed into the ranks of the northern Semites and the Mesopotamian Andites passed from the pages of history - (The Urantia Book, 78:8.10)
2,500 BC - The westward thrust of the Andonites reached Europe, And this overrunning of all Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and the Danube basin by the barbarians of the hills of Turkestan constituted the most serious and lasting of all cultural setbacks up to that time. These invaders definitely Andonized the character of the central European races, which have ever since remained characteristically Alpine. The Mediterranean coastlands did not become permeated by the Andites until the times of these great nomadic invasions. Land traffic and trade are nearly suspended during these centuries when the nomads invade the eastern Mediterranean districts. This interference with land travel brought about the great expansion of sea traffic and trade; Mediterranean sea-borne commerce was in full swing. And this development of marine traffic resulted in the sudden expansion of the descendants of the Andites throughout the entire coastal territory of the Mediterranean basin - (The Urantia Book, 80:9.7; 80:9.9)
[Science note] - In 2015 British archaeologists said they had found the buried remains of a mysterious prehistoric monument close to the famous Stonehenge heritage site dating to about 2,500 BC The discovery was made at Durrington Walls -- a so-called "superhenge" located less than 1.8 miles from Stonehenge.
[Science note] - Egyptian archaeologists unveiled a 4,000-year-old "missing pyramid" that they believed to have been discovered by an archaeologist almost 200 years ago and never seen again. The pyramid was thought to have been built by King Menkauhor, an obscure pharaoh who ruled for only eight years. The style of the pyramid indicates it was from the Fifth Dynasty, a period that began in 2,465 BC and ended in 2,325 BC.
2,000–400 BC - Approximate times for events of the Old Testament. These dates are not provided by The Urantia Book; they're given here simply as a reference for the general time periods during which these historical events occurred: Abraham (2001 BC); Ishmael (1915 BC); Isaac (1901 BC); Jacob (1841 BC); Joseph (1750 BC); Exodus from Egypt (1290 BC); Samuel (1050 BC); Saul (1100 BC); David (1060 BC); Solomon (1020 BC); Jehoshaphat (919 BC); Period of minor prophets (Obadiah, Joel, Jonah) - (840-400 BC); Jonah (770 BC); Amos (760 BC); Hosea (760 BC); Isaiah (740 BC); Micah (737 BC); Hezekiah (726 BC); Hosea (722 BC); Josiah (640 BC); Habakkah (630 BC); Zephaniah (627 BC); Jeremiah (627 BC); Daniel (605 BC); Ezekiel (593 BC); Nahum (593 BC); Haggai (520 BC); Zechariah (520 BC); Joel (500 BC); Obadiah (500 BC); Malachi (433 BC)
2,000 BC - Special bestowal school established by the Melchizedeks on Edentia - (The Urantia Book, 43:1.6)
2,000 BC - Mount Sinai is intermittently active as a volcano, occasional eruptions occurring as late as the time of the sojourn of the Israelites in this region. The fire and smoke, together with the thunderous detonations associated with the eruptions of this volcano, all impressed and awed the Bedouins of the surrounding regions and caused them greatly to fear Yahweh. This spirit of Mount Horeb later became the god of the Hebrew Semites, and they eventually believed him to be supreme over all other gods - (The Urantia Book, 96:1.11)
1,980–1,886 BC - The bestowal of Machiventa Melchizedek. The proclamation of his mission is embodied in the simple statement which he made to a shepherd, "I am Melchizedek, priest of El Elyon, the Most High, the one and only God." Machiventa terminated his bestowal as a mortal being just as suddenly and unceremoniously as he had begun it. It was a great trial for Abraham when Melchizedek suddenly disappeared. Although he had fully warned his followers that he must sometime go as he had come, they were not reconciled to the loss of their leader - (The Urantia Book, 93:2.1 -2; 93:9.1; 93:10.2)
[Science note] - Palmyra (Syria) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period, and the city was first documented in the early second millennium BC Palmyra changed hands on a number of occasions between different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the first century AD.
[Science note] - Mycenae (Argolis, Greece), a Greek military stronghold, was considered one of ancient Greece’s most significant sites. The period of history from 1,600-1,100 BC is referred to as Mycenaean, in reference to the city.
1,500–1,400 BC - Melchizedek's Salem missionaries pass through Asia, spreading the doctrine of the Most High God and salvation through faith. The teachers commissioned by Melchizedek and his successors did not default in their trust; they did penetrate to all peoples of the Eurasian continent and China. At See Fuch, for more than one hundred years, the Salemites maintained their headquarters, there training Chinese teachers who taught throughout all the domains of the yellow race. During this period the Salem missionaries teach the concept of the one God to the Brahman caste of teacher-priests in India. This doctrine ran counter to the dogmas, traditions, and teachings of the Brahman priesthood. The Rig-Veda, one of the most ancient of sacred writings stems from this period as a refutation by the priesthood of the Melchizedek teachings - (The Urantia Book, 94:5.1, 94:1.5)
[Science note] - Founded in 1,400 BC, the Luxor Temple is a sandstone temple complex located in current-day Luxor, Egypt (known as Thebes in ancient times)
1,391 BC - Approximate time of the birth of Moses - (The Urantia Book, 92:5.8, 96:3.1), Wikipedia article
[Science note] - The Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities announced that archaeologists have unearthed the massive head of one Egypt's most famous pharaohs who ruled from 1387-1348 BC Amenhotep III, the grandfather of Tutankhamun, ruled at the height of Egypt's New Kingdom and presided over a vast empire stretching from Nubia in the south to Syria in the north.
1,300 BC - It was hard for the next generation to comprehend the story of Melchizedek; within five hundred years many regarded the whole narrative as a myth - (The Urantia Book, 93:9.5)
1079 BC - Saul, (1079-1007 BC), was, according to the Bible and Qur'an, the first king of the united Kingdom of Israel. The successor to his throne was his son-in-law David. (The Urantia Book, 97:9.4, Wikipedia article)
1040 BC - David, (1040-970 BC) The biblical King David of Israel is remembered for his youthful victory with a slingshot against the Philistine giant Goliath, later for his diverse skills as both a warrior and a writer of psalms. In his 40 years as ruler, between approximately 1010 and 970 BCE., he united the people of Israel, led them to victory in battle, conquered land and paved the way for his son, Solomon, to build the Holy Temple. ( AncientHistory, Wikipedia article, Jewish Library)
[Science note] - In 2008 Israeli archaeologists found a Hebrew inscription in proto-Canaanite script on a pottery fragment dated at 975 BC at a site believed to the biblical city of Sha’arayim (Two Gates). The city was located on a hill above the Valley of Elah, where the Bible says David slew Goliath.
900 BC–500 AD - Greek philosophy arose and continued through the Hellenistic period, at which point Ancient Greece was incorporated in the Roman Empire. - (The Urantia Book, 92:5.12; 98:0.0, 160:0.0, 161:0.0, Wikipedia, Greek Philosophy)
900 BC - Earliest written records. The Hebrews had no written language in general usage long after they reached Palestine. They learned the use of an alphabet from the neighboring Philistines, who are political refugees from the higher civilization of Crete. Having no written language until such a late date, they had several different stories of creation in circulation, but after the Babylonian captivity they inclined more toward accepting a modified Mesopotamian version - (The Urantia Book, 74:8.9)
[Science note] - The Great Wall of China began when fortifications built by various states during the Spring and Autumn (771–476 BC and Warring States periods (475–221 BC) were connected by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, to protect his newly founded Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) against incursions by nomads from Inner Asia. The walls were built of rammed earth, constructed using forced labour, and by 212 BC ran from Gansu to the coast of southern Manchuria. Later dynasties adopted different policies towards northern frontier defense. The Han (202-220 AD/), the Northern Qi (550–574 AD), the Sui (589–618 AD), and particularly the Ming (1369–1644 AD) were among those that rebuilt, re-manned, and expanded the Walls. The Han extended the fortifications furthest to the west, the Qi built about 990 miles of new walls. Although a useful deterrent against raids, at several points throughout its history the Great Wall failed to stop enemies, including in 1644 when the Manchu Qing marched through the gates of Shanhai Pass and replaced the most ardent of the wall-building dynasties, the Ming, as rulers of China. The Great Wall of China visible today largely dates from the Ming dynasty, as they rebuilt much of the wall in stone and brick, often extending its line through challenging terrain. Some sections remain in relatively good condition or have been renovated, while others have been damaged or destroyed for ideological reasons, deconstructed for their building materials, or lost due to the ravages of time.
770 BC–450 BC - Prophets of the Old Testament; an approximately 350 year span: Jonah (770 BC); Amos (760 BC); Hosea (760 BC); Isaiah (740 BC); Micah (737 BC); Habakkah (630 BC); Zephaniah (627 BC); Jeremiah (627 BC); Daniel (605 BC); Ezekiel (593 BC); Nahum (593 BC); Haggai (520 BC); Zechariah (520 BC); Joel (500 BC); Obadiah (500 BC); Malachi (433 BC)
700 BC–50 AD - For more than six hundred years the Jews of Judea, and later on those of Galilee also, had been at enmity with the Samaritans. This ill feeling between the Jews and the Samaritans came about in this way: Sargon, king of Assyria, in subduing a revolt in central Palestine, carried away and into captivity over 25,000 Jews of the northern kingdom of Israel and installed in their place an almost equal number of the descendants of the Cuthites, Sepharvites, and the Hamathites. Later on, Ashurbanipal sent still other colonies to dwell in Samaria - (The Urantia Book, 143:4.1)
[Science note] - 700 BC: In 2008 archaeologists found pottery used by Phoenicians in Tyre, Lebanon.
[Science note] - In Egypt in 2009 archaeologist revealed the discovery of a burial chamber 36 feet below ground at the necropolis of Saqqara dating back to about 640 BC.
600 BC–500 BC - Urantia witnesses a most unusual presentation of manifold religious truth. Through the agency of several human teachers the Salem gospel is restated and revitalized. Outstanding teachers in China were Lao-tse and Confucius, in India, Gautama Siddhartha, Zoroaster, the Jainist teachers, the Greek poet Pindar - (The Urantia Book, 94:6; 92:5.12; 95:6.1; 98:2.5)
[Science note] - Cappadocia (Central Anatolian Region, Turkey) was the home of the Hittite Empire. Many of Cappadocia’s temples and homes were cut directly into the rock structures known as fairy chimneys. The earliest mention of the region’s name dates back to the late 6th century BC.
423–347 BC - Plato, a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, and student of Socrates is the first of record to mention Atlantis in his dialogues Timaeus and Critias, written about 360 BC. This is possibly a legend based on the original Garden of Eden, that sank in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in 32,000 BC (See above) - (The Urantia Book, 92:5.12, 98:2.6, 121:6.3, 130:4.1, 133:5.2, 146:1.3, 164:3.4, Plato, Atlantis, wikipedia)
[Science note] - Petra (Ma'an Governorate, Jordan) is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan. The city is famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. Another name for Petra is the Rose City due to the color of the stone out of which it is carved. Established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Arab Nabataeans.
[Science note] - Following Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia in the 330 BC years, Baalbek (under its Hellenic name Heliopolis) formed part of the Diadochi kingdoms of Egypt and Syria. It was annexed by the Romans during their eastern wars.
[Science note] - The early history of Teotihuacan (San Juan Teotihuacan, Mexico) is quite mysterious, and the origin of its founders is uncertain. Around 300 BC, people of the central and southeastern area of Mesoamerica began to gather into larger settlements. Teotihuacan was the largest urban center of Mesoamerica before the Aztecs, almost 1,000 years prior to their epoch. The city was already in ruins by the time of the Aztecs.
[Science note] - A partially excavated Roman city, Volubilis, founded in the 3rd century BC, was originally a Phoenician settlement. The city was abandoned around the 11th century AD when Morocco’s seat of power was relocated to Fes.
[Science note] - Ptolemy III Euergeter served as Egypt’s 3rd ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty in 222 BC In 2010 archaeologists discovered a temple, thought to belong to Queen Berenice, wife of King Ptolemy III. Archaeologists believed that the temple might have been dedicated to the ancient cat-goddess Bastet.
[Science note] - In China in 1974 an ancient terracotta army created by Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor (221-206 BC) was discovered by a peasant digging a well. It represented one of the greatest archaeological finds of modern times, and was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1987.
100 BC - The beginning of the rise of the Roman Empire to dominate the politics of Europe, North Africa and the Near East completely,( Rise of the Roman Empire)
80 BC - The apocalyptists. About one hundred years before the days of Jesus and John a new school of religious teachers arose in Palestine, the apocalyptists. These new teachers evolve a system of belief that accounted for the sufferings and humiliation of the Jews on the ground that they are paying the penalty for the nation's sins. They fall back onto the well-known reasons assigned to explain the Babylonian and other captivities of former times - (The Urantia Book, 135:5.2)
29 BC - The birth of Joseph, the earth father of Jesus. Joseph was a Hebrew. He belonged to a long and illustrious line of the nobility of the common people. He carried many non-Jewish racial strains which had been added to his ancestral tree from time to time by the female lines of his progenitors. His ancestry went back to the days of Abraham, leading to the Sumerians and Nodites and, through the southern tribes of the ancient blue man, to Andon and Fonta. David and Solomon were not in the direct line of Joseph’s ancestry, neither did Joseph’s lineage go directly back to Adam. Joseph’s immediate ancestors were mechanics—builders, carpenters, masons, and smiths. Joseph himself was a carpenter and later a contractor. - (The Urantia Book, 122:1.2, 122:5.9)
Mary, the earth mother of Jesus. Although the birth date of Mary isn't given in The Urantia Book; it would have been somewhere within this period. She is a descendant of a long line of unique ancestors embracing many of the most remarkable women in racial history. Mary is an average woman of her day and generation, possessing a fairly normal temperament, but she reckoned among her ancestors such well-known women as Annon, Tamar, Ruth, Bathsheba, Ansie, Cloa, Eve, Enta, and Ratta. No Jewish woman of that day had a more illustrious lineage of common progenitors or one extending back to more auspicious beginnings. Mary's ancestry, like Joseph's, was characterized by the predominance of strong but average individuals, relieved now and then by numerous outstanding personalities in the march of civilization and the progressive evolution of religion. Racially considered, it is hardly proper to regard Mary as a Jewess. In culture and belief she was a Jew, but in hereditary endowment she was more a composite of Syrian, Hittite, Phoenician, Greek, and Egyptian genetics, her racial inheritance being more general than that of Joseph. Mary's parents were Joachim and Hannah. She had two brothers and two sisters, one of which was named Salome. - (The Urantia Book, 122:1.2)
15 BC - Birth of Abner, who lived to be 89 years old - (The Urantia Book, 166:5.7)
8 BC - March. Joseph and Mary are married, in accordance with Jewish custom, at Mary's home in the environs of Nazareth; Joseph is 21 years old. This marriage concluded a normal courtship of almost two years' duration - (The Urantia Book, 122:5.9)
8 BC - Gabriel appears to Mary the day after the conception of Jesus - (The Urantia Book, 122:0.3)
8 BC - Late in June, about three months after the marriage of Joseph and Mary, Gabriel appeared to Elizabeth at noontide one day, just as he later made his presence known to Mary - (The Urantia Book, 122:2.2)
8 BC - March. Caesar Augustus decrees that all inhabitants of the Roman Empire should be numbered, that a census should be made which could be used for effecting better taxation. Throughout all the Roman Empire this census is registered in the year 8 BC, except in the Palestinian kingdom of Herod, where it is taken in 7 BC, one year later - (The Urantia Book, 122:7.1)
7 BC - Birth of Lazarus, brother of Martha and Mary, whom Jesus resurrected in March, 30 AD - (The Urantia Book, 168:5.3)
7 BC - February, Elizabeth tells Mary of Gabriel's visit - (The Urantia Book, 122:2.4)
7 BC - March 25. Birth of John the Baptist. In accordance with the promise that Gabriel made to Elizabeth in June of the previous year - (The Urantia Book, 135:0.1)
7 BC - On May 29, there occurred an extraordinary conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in the constellation of Pisces. And it is a remarkable astronomic fact that similar conjunctions occurred on September 29 and December 5 of the same year. Upon the basis of these extraordinary but wholly natural events the well-meaning zealots of the succeeding generation constructed the appealing legend of the star of Bethlehem and the adoring Magi led thereby to the manger, where they beheld and worshiped the newborn babe - (The Urantia Book, 122:8.7)
[Science note] - Archaeologists unearthed an army of 8,000 life-size clay figures created more than 2,000 years ago for the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (Shihuangdi).
Beginning of the earth life of Jesus period
7 BC - Michael's seventh bestowal. Michael and Gabriel depart Salvington for Urantia. Michael is gone for about one third of a century of earth time before returning to Salvington as the undisputed and supreme sovereign of the universe of Nebadon. Joshua ben Joseph, the Jewish baby is conceived and born into the world just as all other babies before and since except that this baby is the incarnation of a divine Son of Paradise and the creator of all this local universe of things and beings. The seraphim of former attachment to Adam and Eve, through the midway creatures, make announcement to a group of Chaldean priests whose leader was Ardnon, telling of the birth of the newborn child - (The Urantia Book, 119:7.1)
7 BC - August 21, noon. Birth of Jesus. With the help and kind ministrations of women fellow travelers, Mary is delivered of a male child - (The Urantia Book, 122:8.1)
Dated papyri in Egypt tell of a 14 year cycle of census inaugurated by the Roman Emperor, Caesar Augustus (27 BC–AD 14), and record one taken in 20 AD The Roman census of 6 AD is referred to in the Book of Acts 5:37. Counting back 14 years previous to that (and remembering that instead of starting at year zero the calendar begins at Jan. 1, AD 1), the first census, the one originally decreed by Caesar Augustus that would have been attended by Joseph and Mary should have occurred in 8 BC However, because of Jewish opposition to “being numbered” (and paying taxes to Rome) Herod is thought to have delayed instituting this first census of the Roman World. We may assume that Herod held the census the next year, dating Jesus’ birth at 7 BC This 7 BC date is also consistent with two other recorded events associated with Jesus’ birth. Herod, alive at the time of Jesus’ birth, died in 4 BC Also, three extraordinary conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn, which might explain the new “star” in the sky noticed by the Magi took place in 7 BC The modern calendar is based on calculations made by Dionysus Exegines, a Roman abbot who lived more than 500 years after the time of Jesus. Because of insufficient historical data the monk erred in fixing the time of Jesus' birth and this seven year error persists in the calendar to this day.(Preston Thomas's The Life and Teachings of Jesus, 5. The Birth of Jesus)
Additional dates and timelines for the life of Jesus: Wikipedia article - Chronology of Jesus, Timeline of Jesus - www.history-timelines.org.uk, Chronological Study of the Life of Christ - www.xenos.org, Some dates in the life of Jesus Christ - www.csun.edu, Chronology of the life of Jesus Christ - www.newadvent.org
6–4 BC - Middle of October, 6 BC The massacre of infants took place when Jesus is a little over one year of age. The night before the massacre Joseph and Mary departed from Bethlehem with the babe for Alexandria in Egypt. They lived in Alexandria two full years, not returning to Bethlehem until after the death of Herod - (The Urantia Book, 122:10.4)
4 BC - Death of Herod, and his son Herod Antipas governes Galilee and Perea during Jesus' youth and ministry until AD 39 - (The Urantia Book, 21:2.11)
4 BC - Late August. Joseph and Mary finally leave Alexandria on a boat bound for Joppa. They go directly to Bethlehem, where they spend the entire month of September in counsel with their friends and relatives concerning whether they should remain there or return to Nazareth - (The Urantia Book, 123:0.4)
4 BC - October. Jesus is about three years and two months old at the time of their return to Nazareth - (The Urantia Book, 123:1.2)
4 BC - Jesus' entire fourth year is a period of normal physical development and of unusual mental activity. He formed a very close attachment for a neighbor boy about his own age named Jacob. Jesus and Jacob are always happy in their play, and they grow up to be great friends and loyal companions - (The Urantia Book, 123:1.4)
3 BC - April 2. The birth of James, Joseph and Mary's second child - (The Urantia Book, 123:1.5)
3 BC - July. An outbreak of malignant intestinal trouble spread over all Nazareth from contact with the caravan travelers. Mary became so alarmed by the danger of Jesus being exposed to this epidemic that she bundled up both her children and fled to the country home of her brother, several miles south of Nazareth on the Megiddo road near Sarid. They did not return to Nazareth for more than two months; Jesus greatly enjoyed this, his first experience on a farm - (The Urantia Book, 123:1.7)
2 BC - February 11. Jesus' first moral decision and the arrival of his Thought Adjuster, which had served with Machiventa Melchizedek. Jesus is no more aware of the coming of his Thought Adjuster than are the millions upon millions of other children who, before and since that day, have likewise received them to indwell their minds - (The Urantia Book, 123:2.1)
2 BC - July 11. The birth of Miriam, Joseph and Mary's third child - (The Urantia Book, 123:2.3)
2 BC - August 21. It is the custom of the Galilean Jews for the mother to bear the responsibility for a boy's training until the fifth birthday, and then to hold the father responsible for the lad's education from that time on. This year Mary formally turns Jesus over to Joseph for further instruction - (The Urantia Book, 123:2.13)
1 BC - Already, with his mother's help, Jesus has mastered the Galilean dialect of the Aramaic tongue; and now his father begins teaching him Greek. Mary spoke little Greek, but Joseph was a fluent speaker of both Aramaic and Greek - (The Urantia Book, 123:3.1)
1 BC - Zacharias and Elizabeth and their son John came to visit the Nazareth family. Jesus and John had a happy time during this, their first visit within their memories - (The Urantia Book, 123:3.4)
1 BC - During this year Joseph and Mary have trouble with Jesus about his prayers. He insisted on talking to his heavenly Father much as he would talk to Joseph, his earthly father. This departure from the more solemn and reverent modes of communication with Deity is a bit disconcerting to his parents, especially to his mother - (The Urantia Book, 123:3.6)
1 BC - June. Joseph turns the shop in Nazareth over to his brothers and formally enters upon his work as a builder. Before the year is over, the family income more than trebled - (The Urantia Book, 23:3.7)
1 BC - June. The most eventful occurrence in John's early childhood is the visit, in company with his parents, to Jesus and the Nazareth family; John is a little over six years of age - (The Urantia Book, 135:0.3)
1–4 AD - Jesus attends the elementary school of the Nazareth synagogue, where he studies the rudiments of the Book of the Law as it was recorded in the Hebrew tongue. For the following three years he studies in the advanced school and committed to memory, by the method of repeating aloud, the deeper teachings of the sacred law. He graduated from this school of the synagogue during his thirteenth year - (The Urantia Book, 123:5.2)
1 AD - Jesus' seventh year is an eventful one. Early in January a great snowstorm occurred in Galilee. Snow fell two feet deep, the heaviest snowfall Jesus saw during his lifetime and one of the deepest at Nazareth in a hundred years - (The Urantia Book, 123:4.1)
1 AD - March 16, Wednesday. The birth of Joseph, Joseph and Mary's fourth child - (The Urantia Book, 123:4.9)
1 AD - August, Jesus is now seven years old, the age when Jewish children begin their formal education in the synagogue schools. Accordingly, he entered upon his eventful school life at Nazareth. Already he is a fluent reader, writer, and speaker of two languages, Aramaic and Greek language. He is now to acquaint himself with the task of learning to read, write, and speak the Hebrew language - (The Urantia Book, 123:5.1)
1 AD - Before he is eight years of age, he is known to all the mothers and young women of Nazareth, who have met him and talked with him at the spring, which was not far from his home, and which was one of the social centers of contact and gossip for the entire town. This year Jesus learns to milk the family cow and care for the other animals. During this and the following year he also learns to make cheese and to weave - (The Urantia Book, 123:5.15)
2 AD - Jesus' uncles and aunts are all very fond of him, and there ensued a lively competition among them to secure his company for these monthly visits throughout this and immediately subsequent years. His first week's sojourn on his uncle's farm (since infancy) is in January; the first week's fishing experience on the Sea of Galilee occurred in May - (The Urantia Book, 123:6.2)
2 AD - Jesus makes arrangements to exchange dairy products for lessons on the harp. He has an unusual liking for everything musical. Later on he did much to promote an interest in vocal music among his youthful associates. By the time he is eleven years of age, he is a skillful harpist and greatly enjoyed entertaining both family and friends with his extraordinary interpretations and able improvisations - (The Urantia Book, 123:6.5)
2 AD - April 14, Friday. The birth of Simon, Joseph and Mary's fifth child - (The Urantia Book, 123:6.7)
3 AD - By the time Jesus is ten years of age, he is an expert loom operator - (The Urantia Book, 123:5.15)
3 AD - May. On his uncle's farm Jesus for the first time helps with the grain harvest - (The Urantia Book, 124:1.11)
3 AD - September 13, Thursday night. The birth of Martha, Joseph and Mary's sixth child and Jesus' second sister - (The Urantia Book, 124:1.7)
3 AD - The most serious trouble as yet to come up at school occurrs in late winter when Jesus dared to challenge the chazan regarding the teaching that all images, pictures, and drawings are idolatrous in nature. Jesus delights in drawing landscapes as well as in modeling a great variety of objects in potter's clay. Everything of that sort is strictly forbidden by Jewish law, but up to this time he has managed to disarm his parents' objection to such an extent that they have permitted him to continue in these activities - (The Urantia Book, 124:1.3)
4 AD - July 5. The first Sabbath of the month while strolling through the countryside with his father, Jesus first gives expression to feelings and ideas which indicated that he is becoming self-conscious of the unusual nature of his life mission - (The Urantia Book, 124:2.1)
4 AD - August. Jesus enters the advanced school of the synagogue. At school he is constantly creating trouble by the questions he persists in asking. Increasingly he keeps all Nazareth in more or less of a hubbub - (The Urantia Book, 124:2.2)
4 AD - Late this year Jesus has a fishing experience of two months with his uncle on the Sea of Galilee - (The Urantia Book, 124:2.7)
5 AD - Jesus spends considerable time at the caravan supply shop, and by conversing with the travelers from all parts of the world, he acquires a store of information about international affairs that is amazing, considering his age of 11. This is the last year in which he enjoys much free play and youthful joyousness - (The Urantia Book, 124:3.3)
5 AD> - June 24, Wednesday. The birth of Jude, Joseph and Mary's seventh child. Complications attended the birth. Mary is so very ill for several weeks that Joseph remains at home. Jesus is 10 years old - (The Urantia Book, 123:4.9)
6 AD - Before he is thirteen, Jesus has managed to find out something about practically everything that men and women worked at around Nazareth except metal working, and he spent several months in a smith's shop when older - (The Urantia Book, 124:1.11)
6 AD - Jesus pays more attention than ever to music, and he continues to teach the home school for his brothers and sisters. It is at about this time that Jesus becomes keenly conscious of the difference between the viewpoints of Joseph and Mary regarding the nature of his mission - (The Urantia Book, 124:4.5)
6 AD - Jesus' last year at school; he is 12 years old - (The Urantia Book, 124:4.7)
7 AD - January 9, Sunday night. The birth of Amos, Joseph and Mary's eighth child - (The Urantia Book, 124:5.2)
7 AD - March 20. On the first day of the week Jesus graduates from the course of training in the local school connected with the Nazareth synagogue - (The Urantia Book, 124:5.4)
7 AD - Saturday, April 4. Jesus' first Passover. Having graduated from the synagogue schools, Jesus is qualified to proceed to Jerusalem with his parents to participate with them in the celebration of his first Passover. One hundred and three relatives, friends and neighbors depart from Nazareth early Monday morning, for Jerusalem. No incident in all Jesus' eventful earth career was more engaging, more humanly thrilling, than this, his first remembered visit to Jerusalem. He was especially stimulated by the experience of attending the temple discussions by himself, and it long stood out in his memory as the great event of his later childhood and early youth. - (The Urantia Book, 124:6.1; 125)
8–12 AD - Poverty. For 4 years their standard of living has steadily declined; year by year they felt the pinch of increasing poverty. By the close of this year they face one of the most difficult experiences of all their uphill struggles. Their hopeful courage contributed mightily to the development of strong and noble characters, in spite of the depressiveness of their poverty - (The Urantia Book, 127:3.14)
8 AD - Of all Jesus' earth-life experiences, the fourteenth and fifteenth years are the most crucial. No human youth, in passing through the early confusions and adjustment problems of adolescence, ever experienced a more crucial testing than that which Jesus passed through during his transition from childhood to young manhood - (The Urantia Book, 126:0.1)
8 AD - August, Jesus' fourteenth birthday. He has become a good yoke maker and worked well with both canvas and leather. He is also rapidly developing into an expert carpenter and cabinetmaker - (The Urantia Book, 126:1.1)
8 AD - September 25, Tuesday. Death of Joseph. A runner from Sepphoris brings the tragic news that Joseph had been severely injured by the falling of a derrick while at work on the governor's residence. Mary directs that James should accompany her to Sepphoris while Jesus remains home with the younger children until she returns, as she did not know how seriously Joseph had been injured. But Joseph died of his injuries before Mary arrives. They brought him to Nazareth, and on the following day he is laid to rest - (The Urantia Book, 126:2.1)
8 AD - Jesus becomes the head of household to his family. Mary was about 32 years old and 2 months pregnant with Ruth; James was just short of 9 and 1/2 years old; Miriam was a couple of months over 8 years of age; Joseph was 7 and 1/2; Simon was just short of 6 and 1/2 years old; Martha had just turned 5; Jude was 3 years and 3 months old and Amos was 1 year and 8 months old.
8 AD - September 26. Just at the time when prospects had been good and the future looked bright, an apparently cruel hand struck down the head of this Nazareth household, the affairs of this home are disrupted, and every plan for Jesus and his future education is demolished. Jesus, just past fourteen years of age, awakens to the realization that he has not only to fulfill the commission of his heavenly Father to reveal the divine nature on earth and in the flesh, but that he must also shoulder the responsibility of caring for his widowed mother and seven brothers and sisters —and another yet to be born. Jesus now becomes the sole support and comfort of this family - (The Urantia Book, 126:2.2)
8 AD - Jesus would not now be expected to go to Jerusalem to study under the rabbis. It remained always true that Jesus "sat at no man's feet." He is ever willing to learn from even the humblest of little children, but he never derived authority to teach truth from human sources - (The Urantia Book, 126:2.3)
9 AD - April 17, Wednesday evening. The birth of Ruth, Joseph and Mary's ninth child. To the best of his ability Jesus endeavored to take the place of his father in comforting and ministering to his mother during this trying and peculiarly sad ordeal. And he is an equally good father to all the other members of his family - (The Urantia Book, 126:3.2)
9 AD - Jesus first formulated the prayer which to many has become known as "The Lord's Prayer." In a way it is an evolution of the family altar; they have many forms of praise and several formal prayers. After his father's death Jesus tried to teach the older children to express themselves individually in prayer—much as he so enjoyed doing—but they could not grasp his thought and would invariably fall back upon their memorized prayer forms. It is in this effort to stimulate his older brothers and sisters to say individual prayers that Jesus would endeavor to lead them along by suggestive phrases, and presently, without intention on his part, it developed that they are all using a form of prayer which is largely built up from these suggestive lines which Jesus has taught them - (The Urantia Book, 126:3.3)
9 AD - By the end of this year Jesus could earn, by working early and late, only the equivalent of about 25 cents a day. By the next year they found it difficult to pay the civil taxes, not to mention the synagogue assessments and the temple tax of one- half shekel. During this year the tax collector tried to squeeze extra revenue out of Jesus, even threatening to take his harp - (The Urantia Book, 126:5.5)
9 AD - The great shock of his fifteenth year came when Jesus went over toSepphoris to receive the decision of Herod regarding the appeal taken to him in the dispute about the amount of money due Joseph at the time of his accidental death. Jesus and Mary had hoped for the receipt of a considerable sum of money when the treasurer at Sepphoris had offered them a paltry amount - (The Urantia Book, 126:5.7)
9 AD - Jesus rents a considerable piece of land just to the north of their home, which is divided up as a family garden plot. Each of the older children have an individual garden, and they enter into keen competition in their agricultural efforts. Jesus spends some time with them in the garden each day during the season of vegetable cultivation - (The Urantia Book, 126:5.10)
9 AD - When sixteen years old, John (the Baptist), as a result of reading about Elijah, became greatly impressed with the prophet of Mount Carmel and decided to adopt his style of dress. From that day on John always wore a hairy garment with a leather girdle. At 16 he is more than 6 feet tall and almost full grown. With his flowing hair and peculiar mode of dress he is indeed a picturesque youth - (The Urantia Book, 135:1.4)
10 AD - Jesus, age 16, attains his full physical growth. He is a virile and comely youth - (The Urantia Book, 127:1.2)
10 AD> - Simon starts to school, and they are compelled to sell another house. James now takes charge of the teaching of his three sisters, two of whom are old enough to begin serious study. As soon as Ruth grew up, she was taken in hand by Miriam and Martha. Ordinarily the girls of Jewish families receive little education, but Jesus maintained (and his mother agreed) that girls should go to school the same as boys, and since the synagogue school would not receive them, there was nothing to do but conduct a home school especially for them - (The Urantia Book, 127:1.5)
11 AD - James graduates at school this year and begins full-time work at home in the carpenter shop. He has become a clever worker with tools and now took over the making of yokes and plows while Jesus begins to do more house finishing and expert cabinet work - (The Urantia Book, 127:2.11)
12 AD - All the family property, except the home and garden, is disposed of. The last piece of Capernaum property (except an equity in one other), already mortgaged, is sold. The proceeds are used for taxes, to buy some new tools for James, and to make a payment on the old family supply and repair shop near the caravan lot, which Jesus proposes to buy back since James is old enough to work at the house shop and help Mary about the home. With the financial pressure thus eased for the time being, Jesus decides to take James to the Passover - (The Urantia Book, 127:3.1)
12 AD - December 3, Saturday afternoon. Death of Amos. Jesus' baby brother died after a week's illness with a high fever - (The Urantia Book, 127:3.13)
12 AD - July. Death of Zacharias. After an illness of several months Zacharias died; John is just past eighteen years of age - (The Urantia Book, 135:2.1)
12 AD - September. Elizabeth and John made a journey to Nazareth to visit Mary and Jesus. John has just about made up his mind to launch out in his lifework, but he is admonished, not only by Jesus' words but also by his example, to return home, take care of his mother, and await the "coming of the Father's hour." - (The Urantia Book, 135:2.2)
12 AD - John and Elizabeth returned to their home and began to lay plans for the future. Since John refused to accept the priest's allowance due him from the temple funds, by the end of two years they have all but lost their home; so they decide to go south with the sheep herd - (The Urantia Book, 135:2.3)
13 AD - Jude starts school, and it is necessary for Jesus to sell his harp in order to defray these expenses. Thus disappeared the last of his recreational pleasures - (The Urantia Book, 127:4.10)
13 AD - Rebecca. Although Jesus is poor, his social standing in Nazareth is in no way impaired. He is one of the foremost young men of the city and very highly regarded by most of the young women. Since Jesus is such a splendid specimen of robust and intellectual manhood, and considering his reputation as a spiritual leader, it is not strange that Rebecca, the eldest daughter of Ezra, a wealthy merchant and trader of Nazareth, should discover that she was slowly falling in love with this son of Joseph. She first confided her affection to Miriam, Jesus' sister, and Miriam in turn talked all this over with her mother. After she and Miriam talked this matter over, they decide to make an effort to stop it before Jesus learned about it, by going direct to Rebecca, laying the whole story before her, and honestly telling her about their belief that Jesus is a son of destiny; that he is to become a great religious leader, perhaps the Messiah - (The Urantia Book, 127:5.1)
14 AD - The story of Rebecca's love for Jesus is whispered about Nazareth and later on at Capernaum. For many years, whenever the story of Jesus' human personality is recited, the devotion of Rebecca is recounted - (The Urantia Book, 127:6.1)
14 AD - Jesus wanted most of all to see Lazarus, Martha, and Mary. Lazarus is the same age as Jesus and now head of the house; by the time of this visit Lazarus's mother had also been laid to rest. Martha is a little over one year older than Jesus, while Mary is two years younger - (The Urantia Book, 127:6.5)
14 AD - Although all their Nazareth property (except their home) is gone, this year they receive a little financial help from the sale of an equity in a piece of property in Capernaum. This is the last of Joseph's entire estate. This real estate deal in Capernaum is with a boatbuilder named Zebedee - (The Urantia Book, 127:6.10)
14 AD - Joseph graduates at the synagogue school this year and prepares to begin work at the small bench in the home carpenter shop - (The Urantia Book, 127:6.11)
15 AD - With Jesus' 21st year he enters upon the stupendous task fully realizing his dual nature. He has already effectively combined these two natures into one— Jesus of Nazareth - (The Urantia Book, 128:1.1)
15 AD - Jesus goes to Jerusalem with Joseph to celebrate the Passover. Having taken James to the temple for consecration, he deems it his duty to take Joseph, his younger brother - (The Urantia Book, 128:1.1)
16 AD - Jesus' brothers and sisters ranged in ages from seven to eighteen, and he is kept busy helping them adjust themselves to the new awakenings of their intellectual and emotional lives. This year Simon graduates from school and begins work with Jesus' old boyhood playmate and ever-ready defender, Jacob the stone mason. As a result of several family conferences it is decided unwise for all the boys to take up carpentry. It is thought that by diversifying their trades they would be prepared to take contracts for putting up entire buildings - (The Urantia Book, 128:2.1-2)
16 AD - Jesus continues this year at house finishing and cabinetwork but spends most of his time at the caravan repair shop. James is beginning to alternate with him in attendance at the shop. The latter part of this year Jesus leaves James in charge of the repair shop and Joseph at the home bench while he goes to Sepphoris to work with a smith. He worked six months with metals and acquired considerable skill at the anvil. Before taking up his new employment at Sepphoris, Jesus held one of his periodic family conferences and installed James, then just past eighteen years old, as acting head of the family. From this day James assumes full financial responsibility for the family, Jesus making weekly payments to his brother. Never again did Jesus take the reins out of James's hands. He has begun the slow process of weaning his family - (The Urantia Book, 128:2.3 -4)
17 AD - Jesus' 23rd year. The financial pressure is slightly relaxed as four are at work. Miriam earns considerable by the sale of milk and butter; Martha has become an expert weaver. The purchase price of the repair shop is over one third paid. The situation is such that Jesus stopped work for three weeks to take Simon to Jerusalem for the Passover, and this is the longest period away from daily toil he has enjoyed since the death of his father - (The Urantia Book, 128:3.1)
17 AD - Jesus talks to Stephen. A young Hellenist named Stephen was on his first visit to Jerusalem and chanced to meet Jesus on Thursday afternoon of Passover week. Jesus began the casual conversation that resulted in their becoming interested in each other, and which led to a 4 hour discussion of the way of life and the true God and his worship. Stephen was tremendously impressed with what Jesus said; he never forgot his words. Stephen subsequently became a believer in the teachings of Jesus, and whose boldness in preaching this early gospel resulted in his being stoned to death by irate Jews - (The Urantia Book, 128:3.5)
17 AD - The last four months of this year Jesus spent in Damascus as the guest of the merchant whom he first met at Philadelphia when on his way to Jerusalem - (The Urantia Book, 128:4.1)
18 AD - This is Jesus' first year of comparative freedom from family responsibility - (The Urantia Book, 128:5.1)
18 AD - The week following the Passover of this year a young man from Alexandria comes to Nazareth to arrange for a meeting between Jesus and a group of Alexandrian Jews. This conference is set for the middle of June, and Jesus goes to Caesarea to meet with five prominent Jews of Alexandria, who besought him to establish himself in their city as a religious teacher as assistant to the chazan in their chief synagogue - (The Urantia Book, 128:5.2)
18 AD - James and Esta. In December James has a private talk with Jesus, explaining that he is much in love with Esta, a young woman of Nazareth, and that they would like to be married. Joseph would soon be eighteen years old; it would be a good experience for him to have a chance to serve as the acting head of the family. Jesus gives consent for James's marriage two years later, provided he has, during the intervening time, properly trained Joseph to assume direction of the home - (The Urantia Book, 128:5.7)
19 AD - Jesus' deep meditation is often broken into by Ruth and her playmates. Always is Jesus ready to postpone the contemplation of his future work for the world and the universe that he might share in the childish joy and youthful gladness of these youngsters, who never tired of listening to Jesus relate the experiences of his various trips to Jerusalem. They also greatly enjoyed his stories about animals and nature - (The Urantia Book, 128:6.10)
20 AD - Jesus becomes strongly conscious that he possessed a wide range of potential power. He is fully persuaded that this power is not to be employed as the Son of Man, at least not until his hour should come - (The Urantia Book, 128:7.1)
20 AD - For years James had trouble with his youngest brother, Jude, who was not inclined to settle down to work nor was he to be depended upon for his share of the home expenses. While he would live at home, he was not conscientious about earning his share of the family upkeep - (The Urantia Book, 128:7.3)
20 AD - November. A double wedding. James and Esta, and Miriam and Jacob are married. It is truly a joyous occasion. Even Mary is once more happy except every now and then when she realized that Jesus is preparing to go away - (The Urantia Book, 128:7.10)
20 AD - The day after this double wedding Jesus holds an important conference with James, telling him that he is preparing to leave home. Jesus presents full title to the repair shop to James, and establishes his brother as "head and protector of my father's house." He drew up a compact in which it is stipulated that James would assume full financial responsibility for the family, thus releasing Jesus from all further obligations in these matters - (The Urantia Book, 128:7.13)
20 AD - James and his bride, Esta, move into a small home on the west side of town, the gift of her father. While James continues to support his mother's home, his quota is cut in half because of his marriage, and Joseph is formally installed by Jesus as head of the family. Jude is now very faithfully sending his share of funds home each month. The weddings of James and Miriam has a very beneficial influence on Jude - (The Urantia Book, 128:7.11)
20 AD - Miriam lives next door to Mary in the home of Jacob, Jacob the elder having been laid to rest with his fathers. Martha took Miriam's place in the home, and the new organization is working smoothly before the year ended - (The Urantia Book, 128:7.12)
21 AD - January, on a rainy Sunday morning, Jesus took unceremonious leave of his family. He left them, never again to be a regular member of that household - (The Urantia Book, 129:1.1)
21 AD - Jesus stopped in Capernaum to pay a visit to his father's friend Zebedee. Zebedee's sons are fishermen; he himself is a boatbuilder. Jesus is an expert in both designing and building; he is a master at working with wood; and Zebedee has long known of his skill. For a long time Zebedee has contemplated making improved boats; he now lays his plans before Jesus and invites him to join him in the enterprise, and Jesus readily consented. - (The Urantia Book, 129:1.2)
21 AD> - Throughout this year Jesus built boats and continued to observe how men lived on earth. He worked with Zebedee only a little more than one year, but during that time he created a new style of boat and established entirely new methods of boatmaking. Jesus became well known to the Galilean fisherfolk as the designer of the new boats - Link to Jesus the Boatbuilder article on SquareCircles.com (The Urantia Book, 129:1.3; 129:1.7)
22–23 AD - April 26, 22 AD - December 10, 23 AD The tour of the Roman world. This tour consumes most of the 28th and the entire 29th year of Jesus' life. Jesus and the two natives from India —Gonod and his son Ganid— leave Jerusalem on a Sunday morning, April 26, AD 22. They make their journey according to schedule, and Jesus says good-bye to the father and son in the city of Charax on the Persian Gulf on the tenth day of December the following year. From Jerusalem they travel to Caesarea by way of Joppa. At Caesarea they take a boat for Alexandria. From Alexandria they sail for Lasea in Crete. From Crete they sail for Carthage, touching at Cyrene. At Carthage they take a boat for Naples, stopping at Malta, Syracuse, and Messina. From Naples they go on to Capua, whence they travel by the Appian Way to Rome. While at Rome they make five side trips which included the northern Italian lakes and Switzerland. After their stay in Rome they travel overland to Tarentum, where they set sail for Athens in Greece, stopping at Nicopolis and Corinth. From Athens they go to Ephesus by way of Troas. From Ephesus they sail for Cyprus, putting in at Rhodes on the way. They spend considerable time visiting and resting on Cyprus and then sail for Antioch in Syria. From Antioch they journey south to Sidon and then go over to Damascus. From there they travel by caravan to Mesopotamia, passing through Thapsacus and Larissa. They spend some time in Babylon, visiting Ur, and then on to Susa. From Susa they returned to Charax, from which place Gonod and Ganid embark for India - (The Urantia Book, 130:0.1 -3; 132:7.1)
22 AD - March. Jesus takes leave of Zebedee and of Capernaum. He asks for a small sum of money to defray his expenses to Jerusalem - (The Urantia Book, 129:2.1)
22 AD - Gonod and Ganid. This Passover week Jesus meets a wealthy traveler, Gonod,and his son, Ganid, a young man about seventeen years of age from India, and being on their way to visit Rome and various other points on the Mediterranean, they arranged to arrive in Jerusalem during the Passover, hoping to find someone they could engage as interpreter and as tutor for Ganid. Gonod is insistent that Jesus consent to travel with them and advances Jesus the wages of one year so that he could intrust such funds to his friends for the safeguarding of his family. Jesus turned this large sum over to John Zebedee. Jesus took Zebedee fully into his confidence regarding this Mediterranean journey, but he enjoined him to tell no man, not even his family, and Zebedee never did disclose his knowledge of Jesus' whereabouts during this long period of almost two years. Before Jesus' return from this trip the family at Nazareth has just about given him up as dead. Only the assurances of Zebedee, who went up to Nazareth with his son John on several occasions, kept hope alive in Mary's heart - (The Urantia Book, 129:2.9 -10)
22 AD> - August 17. Death of Elizabeth. John's mother suddenly passed away.
23 AD - The whole of Jesus' 29th year is spent finishing up the tour of the Mediterranean world - (The Urantia Book, 129:3.1)
24 AD - After taking leave of Gonod and Ganid at Charax (in December), Jesus returns by way of Ur to Babylon, where he joins a desert caravan that is on its way to Damascus. From Damascus he goes to Nazareth, stopping only a few hours at Capernaum, where he pauses to call on Zebedee's family. There he meets his brother James, who had sometime previously come over to work in his place in Zebedee's boatshop - (The Urantia Book, 134:1.1)
24 AD - During his stay of a few weeks at Nazareth, Jesus visits with his family and friends, spends some time at the repair shop with his brother Joseph, but devotes most of his attention to Mary and Ruth. Ruth is now nearly fifteen years old, and this was Jesus' first opportunity to have long talks with her since she had become a young woman - (The Urantia Book, 134:1.3)
24 AD - March. Both Simon and Jude have for some time wanted to get married with Jesus' consent; accordingly they have postponed these events, hoping for their eldest brother's return. Though they all regarded James as the head of the family in most matters, when it came to getting married, they wanted the blessing of Jesus. So Simon and Jude are married at a double wedding. All the older children are now married; only Ruth, the youngest, remains at home with Mary - (The Urantia Book, 134:1.4)
24 AD - About the time Jesus is preparing to leave Nazareth, the conductor of a large caravan which is passing through the city is taken violently ill, and Jesus, being a linguist, volunteers to take his place. Since this trip would necessitate his absence for a year, and inasmuch as all his brothers are married and his mother is living at home with Ruth, Jesus calls a family conference at which he proposes that his mother and Ruth go to Capernaum to live in the home which he has so recently given to James. Accordingly, a few days after Jesus left with the caravan, Mary and Ruth moved to Capernaum, where they lived for the rest of Mary's life in the home that Jesus provided. Joseph and his family moved into the old Nazareth home - (The Urantia Book, 134:1.6)
24 AD - April 1. Jesus left Nazareth on the caravan trip to the Caspian Sea region. The caravan which Jesus joined as conductor is going from Jerusalem by way of Damascus and Lake Urmia through Assyria, Media, and Parthia to the southeastern Caspian Sea region - (The Urantia Book, 134:2.1)
24 AD - This is a most interesting episode in the human life of Jesus, for he functions during this year in an executive capacity, being responsible for the material intrusted to his charge and for the safe conduct of the travelers making up the caravan party - (The Urantia Book, 134:2.4)
24 AD - On the return from the Caspian region, Jesus gives up the direction of the caravan at Lake Urmia, where he tarries for slightly over two weeks. He returns as a passenger with a later caravan to Damascus, where the owners of the camels ask him to remain in their service. Declining this offer, he journeyed on with the caravan train to Capernaum, arriving the first of April, AD 25 - (The Urantia Book, 134:2.5)
25 AD - March. At last John thought out the method of proclaiming the new age, the kingdom of God; he settled that he is to become the herald of the Messiah; he swept aside all doubts and departed from Engedi to begin his short but brilliant career as a public preacher - (The Urantia Book, 135:4.6)
25 AD - Early March. John journeyed around the western coast of the Dead Sea and up the river Jordan to opposite Jericho, the ancient ford over which Joshua and the children of Israel passed when they first entered the promised land; and crossing over to the other side of the river, he established himself near the entrance to the ford and began to preach to the people who passed by on their way back and forth across the river - (The Urantia Book, 135:6.1)
25 AD - Middle of August. After spending some time in the vicinity of Caesarea Philippi, Jesus makes ready his supplies, and securing a beast of burden and a lad named Tiglath, he proceeds along the Damascus road to the village of Beit Jenn in the foothills of Mount Hermon. Here he establishes his headquarters, and leaving his supplies in the custody of Tiglath, he ascends the lonely slopes of the mountain. Tiglath accompanies Jesus this first day up the mountain to a designated point about 6,000 feet above sea level, where they build a stone container in which Tiglath deposits food twice a week - (The Urantia Book, 134:8.1)
25 AD - Middle of September. Jesus confronts the two emissaries of Lucifer, Satan and Caligastia, on Mount Hermon in what is known as the "temptation of Christ." This is the end of his purely human career and the beginning of the more divine phase of his bestowal - (The Urantia Book, 134:8.6)
25 AD - By December when John reaches the neighborhood of Pella in his journey up the Jordan River, his fame has extended throughout all Palestine, and his work has become the chief topic of conversation in all the towns about the Sea of Galilee - (The Urantia Book, 135:8.1)
26 AD - Sunday, January 13. As time passes, rumors came to Capernaum of John who is preaching while baptizing penitents in the Jordan, and John preached: "The kingdom of heaven is at hand; repent and be baptized." Jesus listens to these reports as John slowly works his way up the Jordan valley from the ford of the river nearest to Jerusalem. But Jesus works on, making boats, until John has journeyed up the river to a point near Pella, when he lays down his tools, declaring, "My hour has come." He went out to his brothers James and Jude, repeating, "My hour has come—let us go to John." And they started immediately for Pella, eating their lunch as they journeyed - (The Urantia Book, 134:9.8; 135:8.3)
26 AD - January. Jesus is almost thirty-one and one-half years old when he is baptized. While Luke says that Jesus is baptized in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, which would be AD 29 since Augustus died in AD 14, it should be recalled that Tiberius is coemperor with Augustus for two and one-half years before the death of Augustus, having had coins struck in his honor in October, AD 11. The fifteenth year of his actual rule is, therefore, this very year of AD 26, that of Jesus' baptism. And this was also the year that Pontius Pilate began his rule as governor of Judea - (The Urantia Book, 136:2.8)
26 AD - January 14, Monday noon. John baptizes Jesus. John is atremble with emotion as he makes ready to baptize Jesus in the Jordan. Thus did John baptize Jesus and his two brothers James and Jude. And when John baptized these three, he dismissed the others for the day, announcing that he would resume baptisms at noon the next day. As the people depart, the four men still standing in the water hear a strange sound, and there appeared for a moment an apparition immediately over the head of Jesus, and they heard a voice saying, "This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased." A great change came over the countenance of Jesus, and coming up out of the water in silence he took leave of them, going toward the hills to the east. And no man saw Jesus again for forty days - (The Urantia Book, 135:8.6)
26 AD - February 23, early Saturday morning. Jesus came down from the hills to rejoin John's company encamped at Pella. All that day Jesus mingled with the multitude. He ministered to a lad who had injured himself in a fall and journeyed to the near-by village of Pella to deliver the boy safely into the hands of his parents - (The Urantia Book, 137:0.1)
26 AD - February 23. Jesus' first apostle, Andrew. During this Sabbath two of John's leading disciples spend much time with Jesus. Of all John's followers one named Andrew is the most profoundly impressed with Jesus; he accompanied him on the trip to Pella with the injured boy. Jesus welcomed Andrew as the first of his apostles, that group of 12 who are to labor with him in the work of establishing the new kingdom of God in the hearts of men - (The Urantia Book, 137:1.1)
26 AD - February 23. Jesus' second apostle, Simon Peter. Soon after Jesus and Andrew return to the camp, Andrew sought out his brother, Simon, and taking him aside, informed him that he has settled in his own mind that Jesus is the great Teacher, and that he has pledged himself as a disciple. He suggests that Simon likewise go to Jesus and offer himself for fellowship in the service of the new kingdom. Andrew beckoned to Jesus to draw aside while he announced that his brother desired to join himself to the service of the new kingdom. And in welcoming Simon as his second apostle, Jesus said: "Simon, your enthusiasm is commendable, but it is dangerous to the work of the kingdom. I admonish you to become more thoughtful in your speech. I would change your name to Peter." - (The Urantia Book, 137:1.3)
26 AD - February 24. James and John Zebedee, Jesus' third and fourth apostles. John asked, "But, Master, will James and I be associates with you in the new kingdom, even as Andrew and Simon?" And Jesus, laying a hand on the shoulder of each of them, said: "My brethren, you are already with me in the spirit of the kingdom, even before these others made request to be received. You, my brethren, have no need to make request for entrance into the kingdom; you have been with me in the kingdom from the beginning." - (The Urantia Book, 137:1.6)
26 AD - February 24, Sunday morning. Philip, Jesus' fifth apostle. It suddenly dawns on Philip that Jesus is a really great man, possibly the Messiah, and he decides to abide by Jesus' decision in this matter; he asks Jesus, "Teacher, shall I go down to John or shall I join my friends who follow you?" And Jesus answers, "Follow me." Philip is thrilled with the assurance that he has found the Deliverer - (The Urantia Book, 137:2.5)
26 AD - February 24, Sunday morning. Nathaniel, Jesus' sixth apostle. Philip leads Nathaniel to Jesus, who, looking benignly into the face of the sincere doubter, said: "Behold a genuine Israelite, in whom there is no deceit. Follow me." And Nathaniel, turning to Philip, said: "You are right. He is indeed a master of men. I will also follow, if I am worthy." And Jesus nodded to Nathaniel, again saying, "Follow me." Jesus has now assembled one half of his future corps of intimate associates, 5 who have for some time known him and one stranger, Nathaniel. Without further delay they crossed the Jordan and, going by the village of Nain, reached Nazareth late that evening - (The Urantia Book, 137:2.7; 137:2.8)
26 AD - February 27, Wednesday noon. The wedding at Cana. Almost 1,000 guests have arrived in Cana, more than four times the number bidden to the wedding feast. It is a Jewish custom to celebrate weddings on Wednesday, and the invitations have been sent abroad for the wedding one month previously. In the forenoon and early afternoon it appears more like a public reception for Jesus than a wedding. That evening, from six stone waterpots filled with water and holding about 20 gallons apiece, Jesus turns the water into wine. This water was intended for subsequent use in the final purification ceremonies of the wedding celebration. The commotion of the servants about these huge stone vessels, under the busy direction of his mother, attracted Jesus' attention, and going over, he observed that they are drawing wine out of them by the pitcherful - (The Urantia Book, 137:4.1; 137:4.11)
26 AD - March 3, Sunday morning. Since Jesus had gone north into Galilee, John felt led to retrace his steps southward. John and the remainder of his disciples began their journey south. About one quarter of John's immediate followers had meantime departed for Galilee in quest of Jesus. There is a sadness of confusion about John. He never again preached as he had before baptizing Jesus - (The Urantia Book, 135:10.1)
26 AD - Near the village of Adam, John tarried for several weeks, and it is here that he made the memorable attack upon Herod Antipas for unlawfully taking the wife of another man. John is back at the Bethany ford of the Jordan, where he had begun his preaching of the coming kingdom more than a year previously. In the weeks following the baptism of Jesus the character of John's preaching gradually changed into a proclamation of mercy for the common people, while he denounced with renewed vehemence the corrupt political and religious rulers. On June 12, John is arrested and imprisoned - (The Urantia Book, 135:10.2)
26 AD - June 22-23, Saturday and Sunday. Jesus delivers the "Sermon on The Kingdom." On Sunday, before they began this first two weeks of service, Jesus announces to them that he desires to ordain 12 apostles to continue the work of the kingdom after his departure and authorized each of the six to choose one man from among his early converts for membership in the projected corps of apostles - (The Urantia Book, 137:8.1, 138:1.2)
26 AD - July. After each man presents his selection for the new apostleships, Jesus asks all the others to vote upon the nomination; thus all six of the new apostles are formally accepted by all of the older six. Then Jesus announced that they would all visit these candidates and give them the call to service. The newly selected apostles are: Matthew Levi, the customs collector of Capernaum, who has his office just to the east of the city, near the borders of Batanea. He was selected by Andrew. Thomas Didymus, a fisherman of Tarichea and onetime carpenter and stone mason of Gadara. He was selected by Philip. James Alpheus, a fisherman and farmer of Kheresa, was selected by James Zebedee Judas Alpheus, the twin brother of James Alpheus, also a fisherman, was selected by John Zebedee Simon Zelotes was a high officer in the patriotic organization of the Zealots, a position which he gave up to join Jesus' apostles. Before joining the Zealots, Simon had been a merchant. He was selected by Peter. Judas Iscariot was an only son of wealthy Jewish parents living in Jericho. He had become attached to John the Baptist, and his Sadducee parents had disowned him. He was looking for employment in these regions when Jesus' apostles found him, and chiefly because of his experience with finances, Nathaniel invited him to join their ranks. Judas Iscariot was the only Judean among the 12 apostles - (The Urantia Book, 138:2.2 -9)
26 AD - The year he was chosen as an apostles, Andrew was 33. Jesus never gave Andrew a nickname. But even as the apostles soon began to call Jesus Master, so they also designated Andrew by a term the equivalent of Chief - (The Urantia Book, 139:1.2)
26 AD - When Simon joined the apostles, he was 30 years of age, married, has three children, and lived at Bethsaida, near Capernaum. His brother, Andrew, and his wife's mother live with him. Both Peter and Andrew are fisher partners of the sons of Zebedee - (The Urantia Book, 139:2.1)
26 AD - James, the older of the two apostles sons of Zebedee, whom Jesus nicknamed "sons of thunder," is 30 years old when he became an apostle, married, has four children, and lives near his parents in the outskirts of Capernaum. He was a fisherman, plying his calling in company with his younger brother John and in association with Andrew and Simon. James and his brother John enjoyed the advantage of having known Jesus longer than any of the other apostles - (The Urantia Book, 139:3.1)
26 AD - When he became an apostle, John was 24 years old and was the youngest of the 12. He was unmarried and lived with his parents at Bethsaida; he was a fisherman and worked with his brother James in partnership with Andrew and Peter. Of all the 12 apostles, John Zebedee eventually became the outstanding theologian - (The Urantia Book, 139:4.1, 15)
26 AD - Philip was 27 years of age when he joined the apostles; he was recently married, but he had no children. The nickname which the apostles gave him signified "curiosity." Philip was always wanting to be shown. He never seemed to see very far into any proposition. He was not necessarily dull, but he lacked imagination - (The Urantia Book, 139:5.2)
26 AD - When Nathaniel joined the apostles, he was 25 years old and was the next to the youngest of the group. He was the youngest of a family of seven, was unmarried, and the only support of aged and infirm parents, with whom he lived at Cana, his brothers and sister were either married or deceased, and none lived there - (The Urantia Book, 139:6.2)
26 AD - Matthew, the seventh apostles, was chosen by Andrew. Matthew belonged to a family of tax gatherers, or publicans, but was himself a customs collector in Capernaum, where he lived. He was 31 years old, married and had four children. He was a man of moderate wealth, the only one of any means belonging to the apostolic corps - (The Urantia Book, 139:7.1)
26 AD - When Thomas joined the apostles, he was 29 years old, married, and had 4 children. Formerly he had been a carpenter and stone mason, but latterly he had become a fisherman and resided at Tarichea, situated on the west bank of the Jordan where it flows out of the Sea of Galilee - (The Urantia Book, 139:8.2)
26 AD - James and Judas. the sons of Alpheus, the twin fishermen living near Kheresa, were the ninth and tenth apostles and were chosen by James and John Zebedee. They were 26 years old and married, James having three children, Judas two - (The Urantia Book, 139:9.1)
26 AD - Simon Zelotes, the eleventh apostle, was chosen by Simon Peter. He was 28 years old when he became an apostle - (The Urantia Book, 139:11.1)
26 AD - Judas Iscariot, the twelfth apostle, was chosen by Nathaniel He was born in Kerioth, a small town in southern Judea. When he was a lad, his parents moved to Jericho, where he lived and had been employed in his father's various business enterprises until he became interested in the preaching and work of John the Baptist. Judas' parents are Sadducees and when their son joined John's disciples, they disowned him. He was thirty years of age and unmarried - (The Urantia Book, 139:12.1 -2)
27 AD - January 12, Sunday, just before noon. The ordination of the 12. Sermon on the Mount. Jesus called the apostles together for their ordination as public preachers of the gospel of the kingdom - (The Urantia Book, 140:0.1)
27 AD - January 19, Sunday. Jesus and the 12apostles make ready to depart from their headquarters in Bethsaida to go to Jerusalem to attend the Passover feast in April - (The Urantia Book, 141:0.1)
27 AD - The month of April is spent in Jerusalem; first ministry by Jesus and the twelve.
27 AD - At the end of June, because of the increasing opposition of the Jewish religious rulers, Jesus and the 12 departed from Jerusalem, after sending their tents and meager personal effects to be stored at the home of Lazarus at Bethany - (The Urantia Book, 143:0.1)
27 AD - During this first year of Jesus' public ministry more than three fourths of his followers have previously followed John and have received his baptism. This entire year is spent in quietly taking over John's work in Perea and Judea - (The Urantia Book, 141:1.5)
28 AD - January 10, evening. John the Baptist is beheaded by order of Herod Antipas. The next day a few of John's disciples who have gone to Machaerus heard of his execution and, going to Herod, made request for his body, which they put in a tomb, later giving it burial at Sebaste, the home of Abner - (The Urantia Book, 144:9.1)
28 AD - January 12. When Jesus heard the report of John's death, he dismissed the multitude and, calling the 24 together, said: "John is dead. Herod has beheaded him. Tonight go into joint council and arrange your affairs accordingly. There shall be delay no longer. The hour has come to proclaim the kingdom openly and with power. Tomorrow we go into Galilee." - (The Urantia Book, 144:9.1)
28 AD - January 13, Tuesday evening. Jesus and the apostles arrived in Capernaum and, as usual, made their headquarters at the home of Zebedee in Bethsaida. Now that John the Baptist has been sent to his death, Jesus prepares to launch out in the first open and public preaching tour of Galilee - (The Urantia Book, 145:0.1)
28 AD - January 18, Sunday - March 17. Jesus and the apostles started out upon their first really public and open preaching tour of the cities of Galilee and continued for about two months. On this tour Jesus and the 12 apostles, assisted by the former apostles of John, preach the gospel and baptized believers in Rimmon, Jotapata, Ramah, Zebulun, Iron, Gischala, Chorazin, Madon, Cana, Nain, and Endor. While in Iron Jesus worked as a miner in the mineral mines - (The Urantia Book, 146:0.1)
28 AD - May 3 to October 3. Jesus and the apostolic party are in residence at the Zebedee home at Bethsaida. Throughout this five months' period of the dry season an enormous camp is maintained by the seaside near the Zebedee residence, which have been greatly enlarged to accommodate the growing family of Jesus. This seaside camp, occupied by an ever- changing population of truth seekers, healing candidates, and curiosity devotees, numbered from five hundred to fifteen hundred. This tented city is under the general supervision of David Zebedee, assisted by the Alpheus twins. The sick of different types are segregated and are under the supervision of a believer physician, a Syrian named Elman - (The Urantia Book, 148:0.1)
28 AD- October 3, Sunday - December 30. Beginning of Jesus' second public preaching tour of Galilee. Participating in this effort are Jesus and his 12 apostles, assisted by the newly recruited corps of 117 evangelists and by numerous other interested persons. On this tour they visited Gadara Ptolemais, Japhia, Dabaritta, Megiddo, Jezreel, Scythopolis, Tarichea, Hippos, Gamala, Bethsaida-Julias, and many other cities and villages. Returning to Bethsaida by the end of December, of the 117 evangelists starting the tour 75 completed it. - (The Urantia Book, 149:0.1)
28 AD - Ruth is the only member of Jesus' family who consistently and unwaveringly believes in the divinity of his earth mission from the times of her earliest spiritual consciousness right on down through his eventful ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension; and she finally passed on to the worlds beyond never having doubted the supernatural character of her father-brother's mission in the flesh. Baby Ruth is the chief comfort of Jesus, as regards his earth family - (The Urantia Book, 145:0.3)
29 AD - March 28, the feeding of the 5,000 and the king-making episode - (The Urantia Book, 152:2.1)
29 AD - April 30, Saturday night. As Jesus is speaking words of comfort and courage to his downcast and bewildered disciples, at Tiberias a council is being held between Herod Antipas and a group of special commissioners representing the Jerusalem Sanhedrin. These scribes and Pharisees urge Herod to arrest Jesus; they do their best to convince him that Jesus is stirring up the populace to dissension and rebellion. But Herod refuses to take action against him as a political offender. Herod's advisers had correctly reported the episode across the lake when the people sought to proclaim Jesus king and how he rejected the proposal - (The Urantia Book, 154:0.1)
29 AD - May 8, Sunday. At Jerusalem, the Sanhedrin passed a decree closing all the synagogues of Palestine to Jesus and his followers. This is a new and unprecedented usurpation of authority by the Jerusalem Sanhedrin. Theretofore each synagogue has existed and functioned as an independent congregation of worshipers and was under the rule and direction of its own board of governors. Only the synagogues of Jerusalem have been subject to the authority of the Sanhedrin. One hundred messengers are immediately dispatched to convey and enforce this decree. Within two weeks every synagogue in Palestine has bowed to this manifesto of the Sanhedrin except the synagogue at Hebron - (The Urantia Book, 154:2.1)
29 AD - May 22, Sunday. This morning, before daybreak, one of David's messengers arrives in great haste from Tiberias, bringing the word that Herod has authorized, or is about to authorize, the arrest of Jesus by the officers of the Sanhedrin. The receipt of the news of this impending danger causes David Zebedee to arouse his messengers and send them out to all the local groups of disciples, summoning them for an emergency council at seven o'clock that morning. When the sister-in-law of Jude heard this alarming report, she hastened word to all of Jesus' family who dwelt near by, summoning them forthwith to assemble at Zebedee's house. And in response to this hasty call, there are assembled Mary, James, Joseph, Jude, and Ruth - (The Urantia Book, 154:5.1)
29 AD - For three years Jesus has been proclaiming that he is the "Son of Man," while for these same three years the apostles have been increasingly insistent that he is the expected Jewish Messiah. He now discloses that he is the Son of God, and upon the concept of the combined nature of the Son of Man and the Son of God, he determined to build the kingdom of heaven - (The Urantia Book, 157:5.3)
29 AD - August 12, Friday near sundown. Jesus and his associates reach the foot of Mount Hermon, near the very place where the lad Tiglath once waited while the Master ascended the mountain alone to settle the spiritual destinies of Urantia and technically to terminate the Lucifer rebellion. And here they sojourn for two days in spiritual preparation for the events so soon to follow - (The Urantia Book, 158:0.1)
29 AD - August 15, Monday. The Transfiguration Jesus and the three apostles begin the ascent of Mount Hermon. When Peter, James, and John had been fast asleep for about half an hour, they are suddenly awakened by a near-by crackling sound, and much to their amazement and consternation, they behold Jesus in intimate converse with two brilliant beings clothed in the habiliments of the light of the celestial world. Peter erroneously conjectured that the beings with Jesus were Moses and Elijah; in reality, they are Gabriel and the Father Melchizedek - (The Urantia Book, 158:1.1, 8)
29 AD - November 19, the ordination of the seventy at Magadan Park; Abner placed at head of this group; 400 believers and workers gathered on the shore of the Sea of Galilee to witness the ordination.
30 AD - March. By the middle of month when Jesus begins his journey toward Jerusalem, over four thousand persons composed the large audience which heard Jesus or Peter preach each morning. The Master chose to terminate his work on earth when the interest in his message had reached a high point - (The Urantia Book, 165:1.2)
30 AD - March. The resurrection of Lazarus. It is shortly after noon when Martha starts out to meet Jesus as he came over the brow of the hill near Bethany. Her brother, Lazarus, had been dead four days and had been laid away in their private tomb at the far end of the garden late on Sunday afternoon. The stone at the entrance of the tomb had been rolled in place this Thursday morning - (The Urantia Book, 168:0.1)
30 AD - March 31, Friday. Going into Jerusalem. Jesus and the apostles arrive at Bethany shortly after four o'clock. Lazarus, his sisters, and their friends are expecting them; and since so many people came every day to talk with Lazarus about his resurrection, Jesus is informed that arrangements have been made for him to stay with a neighboring believer, one Simon, the leading citizen of the little village since the death of Lazarus's father. - (The Urantia Book, 172:0.1)
30 AD - April 1, Saturday. Sabbath at Bethany. - (The Urantia Book, 172:1.0)
30 AD - April 2, Sunday. Start of final journey to Jerusalem. - (The Urantia Book, 172:3.0)
30 AD - April 3, Monday in Jerusalem; cleansing the temple. - (The Urantia Book, 173:0.0)
30 AD - April 4, Tuesday morning in the temple. At eight o'clock the fateful meeting of the Sanhedrin is called to order. On many previous occasions had this supreme court of the Jewish nation informally decreed the death of Jesus. Many times has this august ruling body determined to put a stop to his work, but never before have they resolved to place him under arrest and to bring about his death at any and all costs. It is just before midnight that the Sanhedrin officially and unanimously voted to impose the death sentence upon both Jesus and Lazarus - (The Urantia Book, 175:3.1)
The last temple discourse. - (The Urantia Book, 175:0.0)
Status of individual Jews. - (The Urantia Book, 175:2.0)
Tuesday evening on Mount Olivet. - (The Urantia Book, 176:0.0)
30 AD - April 5, Wednesday, the day of rest. - (The Urantia Book, 177:0.0)
30 AD - April 5, Wednesday. Judas's betrayal. Shortly after Jesus and John Mark left the camp, Judas Iscariot disappeared from among his brethren, not returning until late in the afternoon. This confused and discontented apostle, notwithstanding his Master's specific request to refrain from entering Jerusalem, went in haste to keep his appointment with Jesus' enemies at the home of Caiaphas the high priest. This is an informal meeting of the Sanhedrin and has been appointed for shortly after 10 o'clock that morning - (The Urantia Book, 177:4.1)
30 AD - April 6, Thursday evening. The Last Supper - (The Urantia Book, 179:0.1)
30 AD - April 6, Thursday night. In the garden at Gethsemane - (The Urantia Book, 182:3.1)
30 AD - April 6, Thursday night. When Judas Iscariot started out from the temple, about 11:30, he was accompanied by more than sixty persons—temple guards, Roman soldiers, and curious servants of the chief priests and rulers - (The Urantia Book, 183:2.4)
30 AD - April 6, Thursday night. The arrest of Jesus. As the company of armed soldiers and guards, carrying torches and lanterns, approach the garden, Judas stepped well out in front of the band that he might be ready quickly to identify Jesus so that the apprehenders could easily lay hands on him before his associates could rally to his defense - (The Urantia Book, 183:3.1)
30 AD - April 7, Friday morning. At about 3:30 the chief priest, Caiaphas, called the Sanhedrist court of inquiry to order and asked that Jesus be brought before them for his formal trial. On three previous occasions the Sanhedrin, by a large majority vote, have decreed the death of Jesus - (The Urantia Book, 184:3.1)
30 AD - April 7, Friday morning. Throughout this awful hour Jesus uttered no word.. The human heart cannot possibly conceive of the shudder of indignation that swept out over a vast universe as the celestial intelligences witnessed this sight of their beloved Sovereign submitting himself to the will of his ignorant and misguided creatures on the sin-darkened sphere - (The Urantia Book, 184:4.3 -4)
30 AD - April 7, Friday morning. At 6:00 this morning Jesus is led from the home of Caiaphas to appear before Pilate, the Roman procurator who governed Judea, Samaria, and Idumea under the immediate supervision of the legatus of Syria. For the confirmation of the sentence of death which the Sanhedrist court has so unjustly and irregularly decreed, Jesus is taken by the temple guards, bound, and accompanied by about fifty of his accusers, including the Sanhedrist court (principally Sadduceans), Judas Iscariot, and the high priest, Caiaphas, and by the Apostle John. - (The Urantia Book, 184:5.11; 185:0.1)
30 AD - April 7, Friday morning. The death of Judas. This onetime ambassador of the kingdom of heaven on earth walked through the streets of Jerusalem, forsaken and alone. His despair is desperate and well-nigh absolute. On he journeyed through the city and outside the walls, on down into the terrible solitude of the valley of Hinnom, where he climbed up the steep rocks and, taking the girdle of his cloak, fastened one end to a small tree, tied the other about his neck, and cast himself over the precipice - (The Urantia Book, 186:1.7)
30 AD - April 7, Friday morning. A little after 8:00 Pilate turned Jesus over to the soldiers and a little before 9:00 they start for the scene of the crucifixion. During this period of more than half an hour Jesus never spoke a word - (The Urantia Book, 186:4.2)
30 AD - April 7, Friday morning. The Crucifixion. Shortly after 9:00 the procession of death arrives at Golgotha, and the Roman soldiers set themselves about the task of nailing the two brigands and the Son of Man to their respective crosses. At about 9:30, Jesus is hung upon the cross. Before 11:00, upward of 1,000 persons have assembled to witness this spectacle of the crucifixion of the Son of Man. Throughout these dreadful hours the unseen hosts of a universe stood in silence while they gazed upon this extraordinary phenomenon of the Creator as he is dying the death of the creature, even the most ignoble death of a condemned criminal - (The Urantia Book, 187:1.11, 3.1)
30 AD - April 7, Friday afternoon. Jesus dies on the cross. It is just before 3:00 when Jesus, with a loud voice, cried out, "It is finished! Father, into your hands I commend my spirit." And when he had thus spoken, he bowed his head and gave up the life struggle; he was about 4 month short of 36 years of age. When the Roman centurion saw how Jesus died, he smote his breast and said: "This is indeed a righteous man; truly he must have been a Son of God." And from that hour he began to believe in Jesus - (The Urantia Book, 187:5.5)
End of the earth life of Jesus period
30 AD - April 7, Friday afternoon. At about 4:30 the burial procession of Jesus started from Golgotha for Joseph's tomb across the way. The body is wrapped in a linen sheet as the four men carried it, followed by the faithful women watchers from Galilee Those who bore the material body of Jesus to the tomb are: Joseph, Nicodemus, John, and the Roman centurion - (The Urantia Book, 188:1.3) [Point of Historical Interest]
30 AD - April 9, Sunday. At 3:02 am. The resurrection of Jesus. The morontia form and personality of Jesus of Nazareth came forth from the tomb. To believers, the resurrection of Lazarus and Jesus' resurrection prove conclusively that death is not extinction, that rather it is a transition from one form of life to another - (The Urantia Book, 189:1.1)
30 AD - April 9, Sunday morning. About 3:30 the 5 women, laden with their ointments, arrived before the empty tomb. As they passed out of the Damascus gate, they encounter a number of soldiers fleeing into the city more or less panic-stricken, and this caused them to pause for a few minutes; but when nothing more developed, they resumed their journey - (The Urantia Book, 189:4.5)
30 AD - April 9, Sunday, 4:30. Resurrection roll call of Michael. The divisional headquarters for the universe administration of archangel activity is established and the circuit of the archangels operates on Urantia for the first time - (The Urantia Book, 45:4.2; 189:4.2; 37:3.4)
30 AD - April 16. John Zebedee took Mary the mother of Jesus to his home in Bethsaida. James, Jesus' eldest brother, remained with his family in Jerusalem. Ruth remained at Bethany with Lazarus's sisters. The rest of Jesus' family returned to Galilee.
30 AD - May 18, Thursday. Jesus' ascension. Jesus made his 19th and final appearance on earth. It is about 7:45 this morning when the morontia Jesus disappeared from the observation of his eleven apostles to begin the ascent to the right hand of his Father, there to receive formal confirmation of his completed sovereignty of the universe of Nebadon. - (The Urantia Book, 193:3.1, 5.5)
30 AD - May 18, Thursday. Pentecost and the bestowal of the Comforter, the Spirit of Truth - (The Urantia Book, 194:1.1)
30 AD - May. By 4:30 more than 2,000 new believers follow the apostles down to the pool of Siloam where Peter, Andrew, James, and John baptize them in the Master's name - (The Urantia Book, 194:1.4)
30 AD - June. David Zebedee and Ruth, Jesus' youngest sister wed - (The Urantia Book, 190:1.10)
37–100 AD - Josephus, Titus Flavius, a 1st-century Romano-Jewish historian and biographer. Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the 1st century AD. In his historical writings refers to the Sadducees, Jewish High Priests of the time, Pharisees and Essenes, the Herodian Temple, Quirinius' census and the Zealots, and to such figures as Pontius Pilate, Herod the Great, Agrippa I and Agrippa II, John the Baptist, James the brother of Jesus, and a centuries-long disputed reference to Jesus. (Josephus, Wikipedia)
[Science note] - Some 20,000 pieces of jewelry and other objects were buried about 37 AD with a warrior-prince and 5 women in northern Afghanistan. In 1978-79 an archeological team discovered their 6 sealed tombs at a site called Tillya Tepe (hill of gold). The findings became known as the “Golden Hoard of Bactria.”
50 AD - At first the Apostles baptized in the name of Jesus; it was almost 20 years before they began to baptize in "the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit." baptism was all that was required for admission into the fellowship of believers. There was no organization as yet; it was simply the Jesus brotherhood - (The Urantia Book, 194:4.9)
59 AD - Death of Lazarus. After his resurrection in 30 AD Lazarus became treasurer of the church at Philadelphia and a strong supporter of Abner in his controversy with Paul and the Jerusalem church. He ultimately died at 67 years, of the same sickness that carried him off when he is a younger man at Bethany - (The Urantia Book, 168:5.3)
68 AD - The Gospel by Mark. John Mark wrote the earliest (excepting the notes of Andrew), briefest, and most simple record of Jesus' life. He presented the Master as a minister, as man among men. Although Mark was a lad lingering about many of the scenes which he depicts, his record is in reality the Gospel according to Simon Peter. He was early associated with Peter; later with Paul. Mark wrote this record at the instigation of Peter and on the earnest petition of the church at Rome. Knowing how consistently the Master refused to write out his teachings when on earth and in the flesh, Mark, like the apostles and other leading disciples, was hesitant to put them in writing. Peter felt the church at Rome required the assistance of such a written narrative, and Mark consented to undertake its preparation. In accordance with the outline approved by Peter and for the church at Rome, he began his writing. The Gospel was completed near the end of AD 68. Mark wrote entirely from his own memory and Peter's memory - (The Urantia Book, 121:8.3)
70 AD - The Roman destruction of Jerusalem.
70 AD - The Gospel by Matthew. Isador escaped from Jerusalem after the investment of the city by the armies of Titus, taking with him to Pella a copy of Matthew's notes. In the year 71, while living at Pella, Isador wrote the Gospel according to Matthew. He also had with him the first four fifths of Mark's narrative - (The Urantia Book, 121:8.7)
[Science note] - Found in Rome, Italy, the Colosseum is also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre. The largest amphitheater in the world, it was built of concrete and stone from 70-80 AD.
74 AD - November 21. Death of Abner, who, living to be 89 years old, died at Philadelphia. To the very end he was a faithful believer in, and teacher of, the gospel of the heavenly kingdom - (The Urantia Book, 166:5.7)
[Science note] - Pompeii, Italy, is an ancient Roman city near current-day Naples, destroyed and buried in ash and pumice after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD.
82 AD - The Gospel by Luke. Luke, the physician of Antioch in Pisidia, was a gentile convert of Paul, and he wrote quite a different story of the Master's life. He began to follow Paul and learn of the life and teachings of Jesus in AD 47. Luke preserves much of the "grace of the Lord Jesus Christ" in his record as he gathered up these facts from Paul and others. He did not formulate his many notes into the Gospel until after Paul's death. Luke wrote in Achaia. He planned three books dealing with Christ and the history of Christianity but died in AD 90 just before he finished the second of these works, the "Acts of the Apostles." - (The Urantia Book, 121:8.8, 9)
100 AD - In the first century after Christ, Hellenistic culture had already attained its highest levels; its retrogression had begun; learning was advancing but genius was declining. It was at this very time that the ideas and ideals of Jesus, which are partially embodied in Christianity, became a part of the salvage of Greek culture and learning - (The Urantia Book, 195:1.9)
101 AD - The Gospel of John. The Gospel according to John relates much of Jesus' work in Judea and around Jerusalem which is not contained in the other records. This is the so-called Gospel according to John the son of Zebedee, and though John did not write it, he did inspire it. Since its first writing it has several times been edited to make it appear to have been written by John himself. When this record was made, John had the other Gospels, and he saw that much had been omitted; he encouraged his associate, Nathan, a Greek Jew from Caesarea, to begin the writing. John supplied his material from memory and by reference to the three records already in existence. He had no written records of his own. The Epistle known as "First John" was written by John himself as a covering letter for the work which Nathan executed under his direction - (The Urantia Book, 121:8.10)
200 AD - The second century after Christ is the best time in all the world's history for a good religion to make progress in the Western world - (The Urantia Book, 195:3.7)
[Science note] - Amphitheatre of El Jem (Mahdia Governorate, Tunisia) is one of the remains of the Roman city of Thysdrus, known today as El Djem. The amphitheatre was capable of seating 35,000 people and was built in the early 3rd century AD.
300 AD - The final decline of the Roman Empire, which had lasted for about 400 years. (Decline of Rome)
[Science note] - Hadrian’s Wall (Cumbria, England), was a fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in 122 AD in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea, and was the northern limit of the Roman Empire, immediately north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts. The majority of the wall was built over six years and marked the de facto border of the Roman Empire in the British Isles.
[Science note] - Scholars consider Tiwanaku, Bolivia, to be one of the most important pre-Incan civilizations in this region. The empire of which Tiwanaku was the capital flourished from 300-1000 AD.
386 AD - The Archbishop of Constantinople, John Chrysostom, preached a sermon in Antioch c. 386 which established the date of Jesus' birth, Christmas, as December 25 on the Julian calendar. [Point of Historical Interest How December 25 Became Christmas ]; [Point of Historical Interest Wikipedia, Christmas ]
416 AD - The last copy of Matthew's original record of Jesus was destroyed in a fire in a Syrian monastery - (The Urantia Book, 121:8.6)
[Science note] - Over 1,400 caves filled with over 100,000 statues make up Longmen Grottoes (Henan Province, China), also known as the Longmen Caves. Some of the statues are only one inch tall, while the largest Buddha statue measures 57 feet tall. Its earliest history is traced to the reign of Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei dynasty when he shifted his capital to Luoyang from Datong; Luoyang served as the historic capital for 13 dynasties. The grottoes were excavated and carved with Buddhist subjects over the period from 493 ADto 1127 AD.
[Science note] - Ajanta Caves (Maharashtra, India) consist of about 30 rock-cut Buddhist monuments which date from the 2nd century BC to about 480 or 650 AD The area was covered in dense foliage until it was rediscovered by chance in 1819.
[Science note] - Coba (Quintana Roo, Mexico), not far from Tulum’s ruins, Coba was a pre-Columbian Mayan city on the Yucatan Peninsula. The site is the nexus of the largest network of stone causeways of the ancient Mayan world, and it contains many engraved and sculpted stelae that document ceremonial life and important events of the Late Classic Period (600–900 AD) of Mesoamerican civilization.
[Science note] - Ellora (Maharashtra, India), an Indian archeological site, is best known for its caves. There are 34 of them, and they were cut out of the rock faces of the Charanandri Hills. The site presents monuments and artwork of Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism from the 600-1000 AD period.
[Science note] - Chichen Itza is a world-famous complex of Mayan ruins on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. A massive step pyramid known as El Castillo dominates the 6.5-sq.-km. ancient city, which thrived from around 600 A.D. to the 1200s.
[Science note] - Jerash (Jerash Governorate, Jordan), originally constructed around the time of Alexander the Great, was held by a number of successive empires. In 749 AD, an earthquake destroyed much of the city. Wars and subsequent earthquakes added to the deterioration. The ruins remained buried until discovered in 1806.
[Science note] - Borobudur (Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia) is the world’s largest Buddhist temple. It is composed of six square platforms with three circular platforms resting on top of them. The temple is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues and evidence suggests Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century and abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Hindu kingdoms in Java and the Javanese conversion to Islam.
[Science note] - Bagan (Mandalay Region, Burma) was the capital of the Kingdom of Pagan from the 9th century to the 13th century. In present time, over 2,200 temples and pagodas can be found. At its peak, the city contained over 10,000 Buddhist temples.
1000 AD - Machiventa Melchizedek, the onetime sage of Salem, was invisibly present on Urantia for a period of one hundred years, acting as resident governor general of the planet - (The Urantia Book, 93:10.1)
1034 AD - Origin of the Crab nebula - (The Urantia Book, 41:8.4)
[Science note] - Montezuma Castle National Monument (Camp Verde, Arizona, United States). These very well-preserved ancestral Puebloan cliff dwellings were built by the pre-Columbian Sinagua people, a culture closely related to the Hohokam and other indigenous peoples of the southwestern United States, between approximately 1100 and 1425 AD.
[Science note] - Ta Prohm is the modern name of the temple at Angkor, Siem Reap Province, Cambodia, built in the Bayon style largely in the late 12th and early 13th centuries AD and originally called Rajavihara. It was founded as a Mahayana Buddhist monastery and university.
[Science note] - Moai of Rano Raraku (Easter Island, Chile), is the main quarry of moai on Easter Island. The Rapa Nui people carved the human figures, or moai, between 1250-1500 AD The tallest moai weighs 82 tons – the simple act of moving it is considered a more-than-impressive feat.
[Science note] - Tulum (Quintana Roo, Mexico) is a pre-Columbian Maya site, a major port for Coba, one of the last cities built by the Maya. The ruins are situated on 40 foot tall cliffs, along the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula on the Caribbean Sea. It was at its height between the 13th-15th centuries and managed to survive about 70 years after the Spanish began occupying Mexico. Old World diseases brought by the Spanish settlers appear to have resulted in very high fatalities, disrupting the society and eventually causing the city to be abandoned.
[Science note] - A Buddhist temple located in Ayutthaya Historical Park, Wat Ratchaburana (Ayutthaya, Thailand) was founded in 1424 AD by King Borommarachathirat II on the cremation site of his two elder brothers, who died in a duel for the succession of the throne.
1434 AD - Completion of the Michael memorial on Jerusem - (The Urantia Book, 46:5.12 )
[Science note] - Machu Picchu was built around 1450, at the height of the Inca. Discovered in 1911 its construction appears to date to the period of the two great Inca rulers, Pachacutec Inca Yupanqui (1,438-1,471) and Tupac Inca Yupanqui (1,472–1,499).
1500 AD - Jehovah is a term which in recent times has been employed to designate the completed concept of Yahweh which finally evolved in the long Hebrew experience. But the name Jehovah did not come into use until fifteen hundred years after the times of Jesus - (The Urantia Book, 96:1.10)
1808 AD - True prophets and teachers arose to denounce and expose shamanism. Even the vanishing red race had such a prophet, the Shawnee Teuskwatowa, predicted the eclipse of the sun in 1808 and denounced the vices of the white man - (The Urantia Book, 90:2.9)
1827–1915 - Ellen G. White, one of the founders of the Seventh Day Adventist Church, was influential in William S. Sadler's early theological beliefs.Wikipedia
1847–1849 - Archeological excavations in Iraq uncover 30,000 cuneiform tablets and fragments from the royal state library of King Ashurbanipal (668-around 630 BC) which were taken to the British Museum where they remained until the undertaking of the Ashurbanipal Library Project begun in 2002. See Ashurbanipal Library Project of the British Museum; [Timeline reference - 6,000 BC - Sumerian Legend ]
1875–1969 - William S. Sadler MD, was an American surgeon, psychiatrist and author who helped publish The Urantia Book.
1875–1939 - Lena K. Sadler (nee Kellogg) MD, was an American physician, surgeon, and obstetrician-leader in women's health issues. She, along with her husband William Sadler helped to publish The Urantia Book.
1884 - There are not many sun-forming nebulae active in Orvonton at the present time, though Andromeda, which is outside the inhabited superuniverse, is very active. The giant nova of the Andromeda nebula collapsed in forty minutes - (The Urantia Book, 15:4.7; 41:8.3)
1934 - Inditing of the Urantia Papers, Parts I, II, III into English by revelatory commission - (The Urantia Book, 56:10.23)
1934 - The twentieth century has brought new problems for Christianity and all other religion to solve - (The Urantia Book, 195:5.1)
1934 - The worst of the materialistic age is over; the day of a better understanding is already beginning to dawn. The higher minds of the scientific world are no longer wholly materialistic in their philosophy, but the rank and file of the people still lean in that direction as a result of former teachings - (The Urantia Book, 195:6.4)
1935 - Receipt of Part IV, restatement of the life and teachings of Jesus, by commission of Urantia midwayers - (The Urantia Book, Part IV)
1935 - The sun is functioning through the period of greatest economy. It will shine on at present efficiency for more than twenty-five billion years - (The Urantia Book, 41:9.5)
1941 - Arrangements with RR Donnelley & Sons, Chicago, made for setting the text of The Urantia Book into steel plates for printing. The first printing of The Urantia Book will not take place until October, 1955.
1955 - Urantia Brotherhood established; Urantia Book Historical Society article
1955 - October, first printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 10,000 copies
1961 - First printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation French Edition, Le Livre D'Urantia
1967 - Second printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 10,000 copies
1971 - Third printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 15,000 copies
1973 - Fourth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 25,000 copies
1975 - August 1-2; Urantia Brotherhood International Conference - Kendall College, Evanston Illinois
1976 - Fifth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 25,000 copies
1978 - August 13-18; Urantia Brotherhood International Conference -
1978 - Sixth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 25,000 copies
1981 - June 28-July 3; Urantia Brotherhood International Conference - Snowmass, Aspen, Colorado
1981 - July, seventh printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 23,114 copies
1984 - Urantia Brotherhood International Conference
1984 - Eighth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 25,000 copies
1984 - Jesusonian Foundation established
1986 - Ninth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 30,000 copies
1987 - August 2-7; Urantia Brotherhood International Conference - Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine
1989 - October, Urantia Foundation disenfranchises Urantia Brotherhood which changes its name to "Fifth Epochal Fellowship".
1990 - June 30-July 5; International Conference for Readers of The Urantia Book "Walking With God" - Snowmass, Aspen, Colorado
1990 - Tenth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 30,000 copies
1991 - The organization name "Fifth Epochal Fellowship," is officially changed to "The Fellowship" (For readers of The Urantia Book).
1993 - July 31-August 5; International Conference "Touch The World" - St-Hyacinthe/Montreal, Quebec, Canada
1993 - Eleventh printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation,
1993 - First printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation Finnish Edition, Urantia-Kirja
1993 - First printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation Spanish Edition, El Libro de Urantia
1994 - The Urantia Book arrives on the internet to be read and searched
1995 - May, twelfth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, softcover, 5,000 copies
1995 - October, thirteenth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation, hardcover, 25,000 copies
1995 - God's Bible printing of The Urantia Book, Pathways, Inc., hardcover, 5,000 copies
1995 - The Urantia Papers printing of The Urantia Book, Pathways, Inc., hardcover, 5,000 copies
1996 - August 3-8 - The Fellowship's International Conference "Living Faith" - Flagstaff, Arizona
1996 - First printing of The Urantia Book, Uversa Press Edition
1997 - First printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation Russian Edition,
1997 - First printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation Dutch Edition, Het Urantia Boek
1997 - Second printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation Spanish Edition, El Libro de Urantia
1998 - Fourteenth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation,
1998 - Urantia Foundation Leather Pocket Side printing of The Urantia Book
1999 - August 7-12; The Urantia Book Fellowship International Conference "Spirit Quest 2000" - University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
1999 - Fifteenth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation
2001 - Second printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation Russian Edition
2001 - Second printing of The Urantia Book, Uversa Press Edition
2002 - February 7; Press release announcing the establishment of Jesusonian Foundation's website Truthbook.com
2002 - June 30-July 6; The Urantia Book Fellowship International Conference " Revelation in Action" - Estes Park, Colorado
2003 - First printing of The Urantia Book, Uversa Press indexed Edition
2003 - First printing of The Urantia Book, Uversa Press indexed version special leather bound gilt edge
2005 - July 31; The Urantia Book Fellowship International Conference "Body, Mind and Spirit" - Villanova University, Pennsylvania
2005 - Second printing of The Urantia Book, Uversa Press indexed version special leather bound gilt edge
2005 - First printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation German Edition, Das Urantia Buch
2006 - July 26; establishment of The Urantia Book Historical Society
2007 - Eighteenth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation,
2007 - First printing of Portuguese translation of The Urantia Book.
2008 - July; The Urantia Book Fellowship International Conference - University of California, Los Angeles, California
2008 - Nineteenth printing of The Urantia Book, Urantia Foundation,
2008 - Second printing of The Urantia Book, Uversa Press indexed Edition
2008 - Standardized Reference Text Committee for the text of The Urantia Book produces Reference Documentation. Available at Urantia Foundation Website
2009 - Newly designed Urantia Foundation Website on-line. In conjunction with the new website, the text of The Urantia Book and each of its translations is being reformatted for electronic use and to standardize printing processes. A new standardization text identification system is implemented to provide control of the current text and a new annotation system is adopted which accounts for every paragraph and list item in the text.
2011 - July; The Urantia Book Fellowship International Conference - University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah
Before the inception of life, Urantia was designated a decimal, life-experiment world. (See 900,000,000 BC - The Urantia Book, 36:2.8, 40:5.5, 57:8.8, 58:0.1, 62:7.1, 119:8.8)
Although its ultimate destiny is secure, Urantia is a "wild card world." The path to that future destiny will provide many unforseen turns and branches, similar to the circuitous path in the spiritual evolution of the planet that has resulted in the world we know today.Urantia has already been the stage for unanticipated events conforming it to the unique niche in the cosmos that it will forever occupy:
• the loss of a spiritual steward through rebellion, (See 200,000 BC),
• the default and loss of the planetary mother and father, (See 35,797 BC),
• the emergency Melchizedek revelation (See 1,980–1,886 BC) to reinforce the concept of monotheism and to pave the way for the incarnation of the Creator Son, (See 7 BC), and
• culminating with the reception of the Urantia revelation (See 1934).
What can be predicted of the future, along with the usual evolutionary course of events, is that it will continue to provide surprises.
In the immediate future for each of us is physical death and resurrection on the mansion worlds in a new (morontia) body. (The Urantia Book, Paper 47)
The Future +1 - The midwayers relate that "the worst of the materialistic age is over; the day of a better understanding is already beginning to dawn." (The Urantia Book, 195:6.4) and Jesus stated that "when the world has passed through the long winter of material-mindedness and you discern the coming of the spiritual springtime of a new dispensation, should you know that the summertime of a new visitation draws near." (The Urantia Book, 176:2.6) The visitation of a Magisterial Son and the inauguration of a new dispensation is approaching.
The Future +2 - The revelators indicate that Machiventa Melchizedek will return to assume the position of Planetary Prince at the beginning of the next dispensation; but others think that he could come even sooner—"any day or hour." (The Urantia Book, 114:1.3)
The Future +3 - Michael will return sometime (as he promised) to finish his bestowal Son tasks as the spiritual uplifter, a job that he couldn't complete because he came before the mindal uplift of the Magisterial Son (or Sons). Michael may also wait for further biologic uplift, which some of the revelators speculate may be fostered by Machiventa in the additional role as Material Son. (The Urantia Book, 93:10.6-7)
The Future +4 - Wars and rumors of wars will fade away as the teachings of Jesus, the Gospel of the Kingdom, permeate the hearts of mankind. "...peace on earth will not come until all are willing to believe and enter into their glorious inheritance of sonship with God." (The Urantia Book, 165:6.3)
The Future +5 - The races will have blended, resulting in a skin tone of an olive hue. (The Urantia Book, 52:3.7)
The Future +6 - The first stage of light and life will manifest. The world is administered by three celestial beings: the Planetary Sovereign, the chief of the planetary corps of finaliters, and Adam and Eve. (The Urantia Book, 55:4.4)
The Future +7 - The beginning of the second stage of light and life. A Life Carrier becomes the adviser of the planetary rulers regarding the further efforts to purify and stabilize the mortal race. (The Urantia Book, 55:4.8)
The Future +8 - The beginning of the third stage of light and life. Representatives of the superuniverses enter into new relationships with the planetary administration. (The Urantia Book, 55:4.10)
The Future +9 - The fourth stage of light and life. Trinity Teacher Sons become advisors to the world administration. (The Urantia Book, 55:4.14)
The Future +10 - The fifth stage of light and life pertains almost entirely on stabilizing the planetary environment. (The Urantia Book, 55:4.17)
The Future +11 - The sixth stage of light and life produces enhanced mindal function among the people of the world. (The Urantia Book, 55:4.18)
The Future +12 - The world is settled in the seventh stage of light and life. The physical forces of the planet and the sun are stabilized so that they can continue on into eternity. (The Urantia Book, 32:3.2, 55:4.18)
The Future +13 - The local universe of Nebadon becomes settled in light and life. (The Urantia Book, 15:9.15)
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