173:1.1 A huge commercial traffic had grown up in association with the services and ceremonies of the temple worship. There was the
business of providing suitable animals for the various sacrifices. Though it was permissible for a worshiper to provide his own sacrifice, the fact
remained that this animal must be free from all "blemish" in the meaning of the Levitical law and as interpreted by official inspectors of the temple.
Many a worshiper had experienced the humiliation of having his supposedly perfect animal rejected by the temple examiners. It therefore became the
more general practice to purchase sacrificial animals at the temple, and although there were several stations on near-by Olivet where they could be
bought, it had become the vogue to buy these animals directly from the temple pens. Gradually there had grown up this custom of selling all kinds of
sacrificial animals in the temple courts. An extensive business, in which enormous profits were made, had thus been brought into existence. Part of
these gains was reserved for the temple treasury, but the larger part went indirectly into the hands of the ruling high-priestly families.
173:1.2 This sale of animals in the temple prospered because, when the worshiper purchased such an animal,
although the price might be somewhat high, no more fees had to be paid, and he could be sure the intended sacrifice would not be rejected on the
ground of possessing real or technical blemishes. At one time or another systems of exorbitant overcharge were practiced upon the common people,
especially during the great national feasts. At one time the greedy priests went so far as to demand the equivalent of the value of a week's labor for
a pair of doves which should have been sold to the poor for a few pennies. The "sons of Annas" had already begun to establish their bazaars in the
temple precincts, those very merchandise marts which persisted to the time of their final overthrow by a mob three years before the destruction of the
173:1.3 But traffic in sacrificial animals and sundry merchandise was not the only way in which the courts of
the temple were profaned. At this time there was fostered an extensive system of banking and commercial exchange which was carried on right within the
temple precincts. And this all came about in the following manner: During the Asmonean dynasty the Jews coined their
own silver money, and it had become the practice to require the temple dues of one-half shekel and all other temple fees to be paid with this Jewish coin. This regulation necessitated that money-changers be licensed to exchange the many sorts of currency in
circulation throughout Palestine and other provinces of the
Roman Empire for this orthodox shekel of Jewish coining.
The temple head tax, payable by all except women, slaves, and minors, was one-half shekel, a coin about the size of a ten-cent piece but twice as
thick. By the times of Jesus the priests had also been exempted from the payment of temple dues. Accordingly, from the 15th to the 25th of the month
preceding the Passover, accredited money-changers erected
their booths in the principal cities of Palestine for the purpose of providing the Jewish people with proper money to meet the temple dues after they
had reached Jerusalem. After this ten-day period these
money-changers moved on to Jerusalem and proceeded to set up their exchange tables in the courts of the temple. They were permitted to charge the
equivalent of from three to four cents commission for the exchange of a coin valued at about ten cents, and in case a coin of larger value was offered
for exchange, they were allowed to collect double. Likewise did these temple bankers profit from the exchange of all money intended for the purchase
of sacrificial animals and for the payment of vows and the making of offerings.
173:1.4 These temple money-changers not only conducted a regular banking business for profit in the exchange of
more than twenty sorts of money which the visiting pilgrims would periodically bring to Jerusalem, but they also engaged in all other kinds of
transactions pertaining to the banking business. Both the temple treasury and the temple rulers profited tremendously from these commercial
activities. It was not uncommon for the temple treasury to hold upwards of ten million dollars while the common people languished in poverty and
continued to pay these unjust levies.
173:1.5 In the midst of this noisy aggregation of money-changers, merchandisers, and cattle sellers, Jesus, on
this Monday morning, attempted to teach the gospel of the heavenly kingdom. He was not
alone in resenting this profanation of the temple; the common people, especially the Jewish visitors from foreign provinces, also heartily resented
this profiteering desecration of their national house of worship. At this time the Sanhedrin itself held its regular meetings in a chamber surrounded by all this babble and confusion of trade and barter.
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