Short answer: Jesus spent most of his time between the ages of 27-30 traveling in parts of the Roman and Persian Empires. Based on the 2011 map of the world, he visited Iraq, Iran, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Cyprus, Greece, Malta, and Italy.

To gain a much better understanding of this answer, read the following:

The Mediterranean Tour - Jesus age 27-28

Paper 130 On the Way to Rome
Paper 132 The Sojourn at Rome
Paper 133 The Return from Rome

Jesus, age 30

The Camel Caravan Trip to the Caspian Sea