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A New Kind of a Russian Nuclear Reactor

Link to my article: http://csam.montclair.edu/~kowalski/cf/reactor419.html

Feel free to share it with all who might be interested, especially with students.

Ludwik Kowalski, Ph.D.


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Err, yes, well... what's the connection here with the teachings of The Urantia Book?

Larry


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At some point we ought to calculate how much heat is necessary to completely vaporize a human body. That would be the energy needed to power "spontaneous combustion" or a fusion candidate's departure from earthly bondage which incinerates the no longer needed physical body.

Then we could begin to determine the quantities of various chemicals needed to produce such a reaction (if the process is presumed to be chemical).

Alternatively, we might consider the possibility that a combination of chemical and atomic (or sub-atomic) processes can occur and produce enormously more heat.


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lwatkins wrote:
Err, yes, well... what's the connection here with the teachings of The Urantia Book?

Larry

Larry, I'm not sure how familiar you are with the science presented in the Urantia Book but it would seem, if you read the article presented by "kowalskil" that there may be a "connection here", where in Paper 41, section 6, "6. Calcium — The Wanderer of Space", it explains the various particles or dust which is expelled and rides the Sun's beams, where there are many other compounds in the Sun which are related to the same type of CF type of reaction, as described in the article presented. If one looks up "LiAlH4" and "calcium" you may find "Calcium hydride - (CaH2)" which seem to react the same way as described in this article, IE:

Quote:
The reaction of CaH2 with water can be represented as follows:
CaH2 + 2 H2O → Ca(OH)2 + 2 H2
The two hydrolysis products, H2, a gas and Ca(OH)2, are readily separated from the dried solvent.

Calcium hydride is a relatively mild desiccant and, compared to molecular sieves, probably inefficient. Its use is safer than more reactive agents such as sodium metal or sodium-potassium alloy. Calcium hydride is widely used as a desiccant for basic solvents such as amines and pyridine. It is also used to dry alcohols.

Despite its convenience, CaH2 has a few drawbacks:
* - it is insoluble in all solvents with which it does not react vigorously, in contrast to LiAlH4, thus the speed of its drying action can be slow.
* - Because CaH2 and Ca(OH)2 are almost indistinguishable in appearance, the quality of a sample of CaH2 is not obvious visually.


Where if this can be identified as one of the chemical reactions which occurs in the Sun, and can be duplicated as a CF method, it would have a great impact on this World. Also, the UB goes into great detail, in section 41:6 to describe how the Sun seems to function and it is within the same parameters as explained in the article submitted, otherwise why would the Authors mention this in the UB?
Quote:
6. Calcium — The Wanderer of Space

(461.5) 41:6.1 In deciphering spectral phenomena, it should be remembered that space is not empty; that light, in traversing space, is sometimes slightly modified by the various forms of energy and matter which circulate in all organized space. Some of the lines indicating unknown matter which appear in the spectra of your sun are due to modifications of well-known elements which are floating throughout space in shattered form, the atomic casualties of the fierce encounters of the solar elemental battles. Space is pervaded by these wandering derelicts, especially sodium and calcium.

(461.6) 41:6.2 Calcium is, in fact, the chief element of the matter-permeation of space throughout Orvonton. Our whole superuniverse is sprinkled with minutely pulverized stone. Stone is literally the basic building matter for the planets and spheres of space. The cosmic cloud, the great space blanket, consists for the most part of the modified atoms of calcium. The stone atom is one of the most prevalent and persistent of the elements. It not only endures solar ionization — splitting — but persists in an associative identity even after it has been battered by the destructive X rays and shattered by the high solar temperatures. Calcium possesses an individuality and a longevity excelling all of the more common forms of matter.

(462.1) 41:6.3 As your physicists have suspected, these mutilated remnants of solar calcium literally ride the light beams for varied distances, and thus their widespread dissemination throughout space is tremendously facilitated. The sodium atom, under certain modifications, is also capable of light and energy locomotion. The calcium feat is all the more remarkable since this element has almost twice the mass of sodium. Local space-permeation by calcium is due to the fact that it escapes from the solar photosphere, in modified form, by literally riding the outgoing sunbeams. Of all the solar elements, calcium, notwithstanding its comparative bulk — containing as it does twenty revolving electrons — is the most successful in escaping from the solar interior to the realms of space. This explains why there is a calcium layer, a gaseous stone surface, on the sun six thousand miles thick; and this despite the fact that nineteen lighter elements, and numerous heavier ones, are underneath.

(462.2) 41:6.4 Calcium is an active and versatile element at solar temperatures. The stone atom has two agile and loosely attached electrons in the two outer electronic circuits, which are very close together. Early in the atomic struggle it loses its outer electron; whereupon it engages in a masterful act of juggling the nineteenth electron back and forth between the nineteenth and twentieth circuits of electronic revolution. By tossing this nineteenth electron back and forth between its own orbit and that of its lost companion more than twenty-five thousand times a second, a mutilated stone atom is able partially to defy gravity and thus successfully to ride the emerging streams of light and energy, the sunbeams, to liberty and adventure. This calcium atom moves outward by alternate jerks of forward propulsion, grasping and letting go the sunbeam about twenty-five thousand times each second. And this is why stone is the chief component of the worlds of space. Calcium is the most expert solar-prison escaper.

(462.3) 41:6.5 The agility of this acrobatic calcium electron is indicated by the fact that, when tossed by the temperature-X-ray solar forces to the circle of the higher orbit, it only remains in that orbit for about one one-millionth of a second; but before the electric-gravity power of the atomic nucleus pulls it back into its old orbit, it is able to complete one million revolutions about the atomic center.

(462.4) 41:6.6 Your sun has parted with an enormous quantity of its calcium, having lost tremendous amounts during the times of its convulsive eruptions in connection with the formation of the solar system. Much of the solar calcium is now in the outer crust of the sun.

(462.5) 41:6.7 It should be remembered that spectral analyses show only sun-surface compositions. For example: Solar spectra exhibit many iron lines, but iron is not the chief element in the sun. This phenomenon is almost wholly due to the present temperature of the sun’s surface, a little less than 6,000 degrees, this temperature being very favorable to the registry of the iron spectrum.

Maybe, if the powdery compound used in the article, mentioned as "LiAlH4" and substituted it with "Calcium hydride - (CaH2)", with some other modifications, there would be a better reaction of CF, and act more so like how the Sun processes its fuel, which would seem that we have an abundant supply, as noted in the UB. Note to mention that the temperature variants would be controllable as mentioned in the UB, and also, the byproduct might prove to be a viable fuel of the future.
Quote:
Calcium hydride is prepared from its elements by direct combination of calcium and hydrogen at 300 to 400 °C.

And when it comes in contact with water, it reacts:
Quote:
Calcium hydride is the chemical compound with the formula CaH2. This grey powder (white if pure, which is rare) reacts vigorously with water liberating hydrogen gas. CaH2 is thus used as a drying agent, i.e. a desiccant.

CaH2 is a saline hydride, meaning that its structure is salt-like. The alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals all form saline hydrides. A well-known example is sodium hydride, which crystallizes in the NaCl motif. These species are insoluble in all solvents with which they do not react. CaH2 crystallizes in the PbCl2 (cotunnite) structure.

So, I do find that it has a connection "with the teachings of The Urantia Book?"


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In addition to my previous post one should make note of the following Urantia Book quote:
Quote:
(461.5) 41:6.1 In deciphering spectral phenomena, it should be remembered that space is not empty; that light, in traversing space, is sometimes slightly modified by the various forms of energy and matter which circulate in all organized space. Some of the lines indicating unknown matter which appear in the spectra of your sun are due to modifications of well-known elements which are floating throughout space in shattered form, the atomic casualties of the fierce encounters of the solar elemental battles. Space is pervaded by these wandering derelicts, especially sodium and calcium.

It is evident that the UB quote above, is indicating that our current understanding of what is occurring in our sun is being "slightly modified" as we examine the "spectra of" our "sun", and if the UB is also indicating that "sodium and calcium" are the main elements which is causing our distortion of "deciphering" the various elements which make up the "solar elemental battles."
If we know from the UB that "sodium and calcium" are two primary factors causing a "spectral phenomena", we should be able to filter out these elements from our calculations where we should be able to get a better understanding of what is going on in the sun, because if we assume that space is empty or a vacuum, our "spectral" analysis of the "spectra of the sun" would be incorrect or distorted. Also, in the quote above where it states that "Some of the lines indicating unknown matter" where the "lines" being referred too, are the following.
Quote:
A spectral line or a spectra is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorpion of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. Spectral lines are often used to identify atoms and molecules from their characteristic spectral lines. These "fingerprints" can also be compared to the previously collected fingerprints of atoms and molecules, and are thus used to identify the atomic and molecular components of stars and planets which would otherwise be impossible.
[. . .]
Types of line spectra -
Spectral lines are the result of interaction between a quantum system (usually atoms, but sometimes molecules or atomic nuclei) and a single photon. When a photon has about the right amount of energy to allow a change in the energy state of the system (in the case of an atom this is usually an electron changing orbitals), the photon is absorbed. Then it will be spontaneously re-emitted, either in the same frequency as the original or in a cascade, where the sum of the energies of the photons emitted will be equal to the energy of the one absorbed (assuming the system returns to its original state).

A spectral line may be observed either as an emission line or an absorption line. Which type of line is observed depends on the type of material and its temperature relative to another emission source. An absorption line is produced when photons from a hot, broad spectrum source pass through a cold material. The intensity of light, over a narrow frequency range, is reduced due to absorption by the material and re-emission in random directions. By contrast, a bright, emission line is produced when photons from a hot material are detected in the presence of a broad spectrum from a cold source. The intensity of light, over a narrow frequency range, is increased due to emission by the material.

Spectral lines are highly atom-specific, and can be used to identify the chemical composition of any medium capable of letting light pass through it (typically gas is used). Several elements were discovered by spectroscopic means, such as helium, thallium, and cerium. Spectral lines also depend on the physical conditions of the gas, so they are widely used to determine the chemical composition of stars and other celestial bodies that cannot be analyzed by other means, as well as their physical conditions.

Mechanisms other than atom-photon interaction can produce spectral lines. Depending on the exact physical interaction (with molecules, single particles, etc.), the frequency of the involved photons will vary widely, and lines can be observed across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to gamma rays.

Also, regarding "spectra of the sun":
Quote:
SCISAT-1 is a Canadian satellite designed to make observations of the Earth's atmosphere. Its main instruments are an optical Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the ACE-FTS Instrument, and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer, MAESTRO. These devices record spectra of the Sun, as sunlight passes through the Earth's atmosphere, making analyses of the chemical elements of the atmosphere possible.

Quote:
Ernst Arnold Kohlschütter - In 1911 he began working at the Mount Wilson observatory, studying the spectra of the Sun and stars. In collaboration with Walter Sidney Adams, and in 1914 they discovered that the absolute luminosity of a star was proportional to the relative intensity of the lines in the spectrum. This allowed astronomers to determine the distance of stars, including main sequence and giants, using the spectroscope.

Keeping in mind that even our understanding of determining our distance from other star systems might need to take the same filtering methods which would alter our information as indicated in the UB.
In addition to the above one can examine the following also:
Quote:
In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, the spectral theorem is any of a number of results about linear operators or about matrices. In broad terms the spectral theorem provides conditions under which an operator or a matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis). This concept of diagonalization is relatively straightforward for operators on finite-dimensional spaces, but requires some modification for operators on infinite-dimensional spaces. In general, the spectral theorem identifies a class of linear operators that can be modelled by multiplication operators, which are as simple as one can hope to find. In more abstract language, the spectral theorem is a statement about commutative C*-algebras. See also spectral theory for a historical perspective.

Quote:
In mathematics, spectral theory is an inclusive term for theories extending the eigenvector and eigenvalue theory of a single square matrix to a much broader theory of the structure of operators in a variety of mathematical spaces. It is a result of studies of linear algebra and the solutions of systems of linear equations and their generalizations. The theory is connected to that of analytic functions because the spectral properties of an operator are related to analytic functions of the spectral parameter.

Quote:
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state. The energy of the emitted photon is equal to the energy difference between the two states. There are many possible electron transitions for each atom, and each transition has a specific energy difference. This collection of different transitions, leading to different radiated wavelengths, make up an emission spectrum. Each element's emission spectrum is unique. Therefore, spectroscopy can be used to identify the elements in matter of unknown composition. Similarly, the emission spectra of molecules can be used in chemical analysis of substances.
[. . .]
The emittance of an object quantifies how much light is emitted by it. This may be related to other properties of the object through the Stefan–Boltzmann law. For most substances, the amount of emission varies with the temperature and the spectroscopic composition of the object, leading to the appearance of color temperature and emission lines. Precise measurements at many wavelengths allow the identification of a substance via emission spectroscopy.

Where it would seem that to understand this topic, or how it could apply to the teaching of the UB, could be pertinent to many subjects in Physics if one could actually associate what is in the Urantia Book with what is known or unknown in science today. So much information compressed into just one paragraph of this Book, could you imagine what else is contained in this Book if one could only get past the implied religious connotation which most people assume which is contained within?


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In addition to my previous posts one should note the following Urantia Book quotes:

Quote:
(461.6) 41:6.2 Calcium is, in fact, the chief element of the matter-permeation of space throughout Orvonton. Our whole superuniverse is sprinkled with minutely pulverized stone. Stone is literally the basic building matter for the planets and spheres of space. The cosmic cloud, the great space blanket, consists for the most part of the modified atoms of calcium. The stone atom is one of the most prevalent and persistent of the elements. It not only endures solar ionizationsplitting — but persists in an associative identity even after it has been battered by the destructive X rays and shattered by the high solar temperatures. Calcium possesses an individuality and a longevity excelling all of the more common forms of matter.

In the narrative above, the authors use various words or combination of words which may not actually seem as descriptive to the topic but, it would seem that these words may have been chosen specifically to warrant the reader’s additional scrutiny?
Where the first example would be with “matter-permeation”, which would have various synonyms, which would be a lead in to other words used in this section, - “diffused through”, “pervaded” and /or “interstices”, which would otherwise indicate some motion of the matter of space, ergo the title of this section “The Wanderer of Space”.

Then others: why use the word(s) “stone” or “stone atom”, where “stone” can mean: “the hard substance, formed of mineral matter, of which rocks consist”, “any small, hard seed; pit”; cell, or more likely, “the hard endocarp of a drupe,” with a seed inside, like a peach, where the latter might associate with “stone atom” as having component parts, and a shell, as in "electron shell", and "seed nucleus"?

Where, when based on “pulverized stone” as “the basic building matter” as not being exclusively “calcium”, but multiple components which contain or can bind with “calcium”, where it states, “consists for the most part” and also are “modified atoms of calcium”, where it is understandable, because “Free calcium metal is too reactive to occur in nature”, and it is classified as a “metal”.

Then there is the phrase, and definition of “solar ionization — splitting —“, which is not really a viable term unless one takes into consideration “Star Wars” where the propulsion system used in the “Imperial Star Destroyer” and “Imperial Super Star Destroyer” are noted as a “Solar ionization reactor” where “splitting” may refer to an atomic reaction, but the word “splitting” as associated with “solar” may refer to a process used, as described in the following article on “Solar Splitting of Water to Hydrogen and Oxygen”, where this process theorizes an efficient way or procedure, to splitting water (H2O) into their separate components, H2 and O2, which may be viable to this UB topic, when it refers to “calcium” and “solar ionization”, where to ionize (“is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes” and “Ionization can result from the loss of an electron after collisions with sub atomic particles, collisions with other atoms, molecules and ions, or through the interaction with light”), then the “calcium” element or atom, where the “stone atom” could refer to “atomic nucleus” where its component parts, when split, would indicate the “protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.”

Where this “stone atom” with its component parts which “persists in an associative identity”, which might also refer to “Isotopes” which retain an association with the element; in this case “calcium” where the following should be noted:
Quote:
Calcium (Ca) has a total of 24 isotopes, from 34Ca to 57Ca. There are five stable isotopes (40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca and 46Ca), plus one isotope (48Ca) with such a long half-life that for all practical purposes it can be considered stable. The most abundant isotope, 40Ca, as well as the rare 46Ca, are theoretically unstable on energetic grounds, but their decay has not been observed. Calcium also has a cosmogenic isotope, radioactive 41Ca, which has a half-life of 102,000 years. Unlike cosmogenic isotopes that are produced in the atmosphere, 41Ca is produced by neutron activation of 40Ca. Most of its production is in the upper metre or so of the soil column where the cosmogenic neutron flux is still sufficiently strong. 41Ca has received much attention in stellar studies because it decays to 41K, a critical indicator of solar-system anomalies. The most stable artificial radioisotope is 45Ca, with a half-life of 163 days.

All other isotopes have half-lives of 163 days or less, most under a minute. The least stable is 34Ca with a half-life shorter than 35 nanoseconds.

40Ca comprises about 97% of naturally occurring calcium. 40Ca is also one of the daughter products of 40K decay, along with 40Ar. While K-Ar dating has been used extensively in the geological sciences, the prevalence of 40Ca in nature has impeded its use in dating. Techniques using mass spectrometry and a double spike isotope dilution have been used for K-Ca age dating.
Standard atomic mass: 40.078(4) u

A specific note should be taken of “41Ca” above and its classification as a “cosmogenic isotope”:

Quote:
Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare isotopes created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing cosmic ray spallation. These isotopes are produced within Earth materials such as rocks or soil, in Earth's atmosphere, and in extraterrestrial items such as meteorites. By measuring cosmogenic isotopes, scientists are able to gain insight into a range of geological and astronomical processes. There are both radioactive and stable cosmogenic isotopes.

Then there is the following selection of words and phase’s, “battered by the destructive X rays and shattered by the high solar temperatures”, which present additional non-actualized real associations, such as “destructive X rays” where I have not found a real example other than “cosmic rays” which there are basically two types of “X-rays”, but share specific frequencies with gamma-rays, and when associated with “cosmic ray” there seems to be a correlation as follows:
Quote:
Cosmic rays are immensely high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System. They may produce showers of secondary particles that penetrate and impact the Earth's atmosphere and sometimes even reach the surface. Composed primarily of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei, they are of mysterious origin. Data from the Fermi space telescope (2013) have been interpreted as evidence that a significant fraction of primary cosmic rays originate from the supernovae of massive stars. However, this is not thought to be their only source. Active galactic nuclei probably also produce cosmic rays.

The term ray is a historical accident, as cosmic rays were at first, and wrongly, thought to be mostly electromagnetic radiation. In common scientific usage high-energy particles with intrinsic mass are known as "cosmic" rays, and photons, which are quanta of electromagnetic radiation (and so have no intrinsic mass) are known by their common names, such as "gamma rays" or "X-rays", depending on their frequencies.

Where it is this close association between X-rays and gamma rays which with the battering and “shattered [scattered] by the high solar temperatures” that causes a reaction like “Cosmic ray spallation is a form of naturally occurring nuclear fission and nucleosynthesis. It refers to the formation of elements from the impact of cosmic rays on an object. Cosmic rays are highly energetic charged particles from outside of Earth ranging from protons, alpha particles, and nuclei of many heavier elements. About 1% of cosmic rays also consist of free electrons.”

However, it would be less practical to produce “cosmic rays” to assume that the battering of “destructive X rays” could create the effect needed as described, but when we look at the next Urantia Book quote and associate “light beams”, “light and energy locomotion” and “riding the outgoing sunbeams”, it would seem that what is being presented here when being associated with “destructive X rays” is actually “Ultrafast laser spectroscopy”, and that it is applied to “solar ionization” which produces “Plasma” for the purpose of creating “Critical ionization velocity” – “The critical ionization velocity is the relative velocity between an ionized plasma and a neutral gas, above which a runaway ionization process takes place. The critical ionization process is a quite general mechanism for the conversion of the kinetic energy of a rapidly streaming gas into ionization and plasma thermal energy. Critical phenomena in general are typical of complex systems, and may lead to sharp spatial or temporal features.”

Quote:
(462.1) 41:6.3 As your physicists have suspected, these mutilated remnants of solar calcium literally ride the light beams for varied distances, and thus their widespread dissemination throughout space is tremendously facilitated. The sodium atom, under certain modifications, is also capable of light and energy locomotion. The calcium feat is all the more remarkable since this element has almost twice the mass of sodium. Local space-permeation by calcium is due to the fact that it escapes from the solar photosphere, in modified form, by literally riding the outgoing sunbeams. Of all the solar elements, calcium, notwithstanding its comparative bulk — containing as it does twenty revolving electrons — is the most successful in escaping from the solar interior to the realms of space. This explains why there is a calcium layer, a gaseous stone surface, on the sun six thousand miles thick; and this despite the fact that nineteen lighter elements, and numerous heavier ones, are underneath.

In the UB narration above, it seems relatively straight forward, but it also has multiple overlapping subjects imbedded therein. Where when we look at the phrase “light beams” where, when applied to solar or sun light, we associate it with light as visualized from Earth, and the following:
Quote:
Light beam

“A light beam or beam of light is a narrow projection of light energy radiating from a source into a beam. Sunlight is a natural example of a light beam when filtered through various mediums (clouds, foliage, windows, etc). To artificially produce a light beam, a lamp and a parabolic reflector is used in many lighting devices such as spotlights, car headlights, PAR Cans and LED housings.”

One could also assume that “beam” could refer to the “the widest parts” of “light”, which would apply to “The electromagnetic spectrum” which “is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object has a different meaning, and is instead the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object.” Then there is the word “sunbeams” which would also only apply to the visual perception from Earth, and would not necessarily apply as coming from the sun, as might be inferred from context? Also, “Sunbeam may refer to:” - “Sunlight” - “Crepuscular rays, rays of sunlight that appear to radiate from a single point in the sky (such as a gap in clouds)”

But in the UB narration above, these two references, “light beams” and “sunbeams” are qualified with a common phrase, “literally riding the”, some kind of “beam”, in that could the authors be inferring “photon” – “an elementary particle”, or some light frequency, which is not specified in this narration, unless we examine the rest of the context. But, then there is the use of “outgoing” with “sunbeams”, which might also be misleading when we could consider “light beams” as visible illuminating light?

Therefore, I believe that this UB narration along with the previous, may be actually referring to a process which may be the following:
Quote:
Isotope separation with a light touch

A new method of separating isotopes using lasers has been unveiled by scientists in the US. In the short term, the technique could be used to purify lithium-7, which is used to cool nuclear reactors. However, in principle, the method should be applicable to isotopes of a wide range of elements. [. . .]

While a more environmentally friendly process would certainly be welcome, candidates are rather thin on the ground. Using lasers to separate isotopes with different nuclear magnetic moments has been suggested before, but the energy requirements have always been prohibitive. "Previous methods of enrichment using lasers were primarily based on ionization of the atoms, and that required several different wavelengths and very high-power lasers," says Mark Raizen of the University of Texas at Austin, who led the research. [. . .]

Optical Pumping

Raizen and fellow physicist Bruce Klappauf decided instead to investigate a subtler effect called optical pumping, whereby the absorption of laser light can change the magnetic state of a nucleus, making it move in a specific direction in response to a magnetic field. Different isotopes are excited at slightly different frequencies, and lasers emit at only one, very precise frequency, so this provides a very efficient way of changing the magnetic states of some isotopes but not others, and thus to separate the two. "The importance of this is that it can be done with an economy of light, which is important when one considers the scalability of the method," says Raizen. [. . .]

http://science.howstuffworks.com/laser-analysis3.htm

Overview of Laser Spectroscopy
[. . .] Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-OES) has a ridiculously complicated name, so let's start with ICP, which is the heart of the analytical technique. The "P" in ICP stands for plasma, an ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons. In nature, plasmas usually form only in stars, where the temperatures are high enough to ionize the gas. But scientists can create plasmas in the lab using something known as a plasma torch. The torch consists of three concentric tubes of silica surrounded by a metal coil. When an electric current passes through the coil, a magnetic field is created, which in turn induces electric currents in a gas, usually argon, allowed to pass through the silica tubes. This excites the argon gas and creates the plasma. A nozzle at the end of the torch acts as an exit for the plasma. [. . .]

Where, as indicated earlier, but more directly, “destructive X rays” could be a direct reference to “Ultrafast laser spectroscopy”, specifically “X-ray generation”, as follows.
Quote:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultrafast_laser_spectroscopy “sub-section > “

X-ray generation

Ultrafast optical pulses can be used to generate x-ray pulses in multiple ways. An optical pulse can excite an electron pulse via the photoelectric effect, and acceleration across a high potential gives the electrons kinetic energy. When the electrons hit a target they generate both characteristic x-rays and Bremsstrahlung. A second method is via laser induced plasma. When very high intensity laser light is incident on a target, it strips electrons off the target creating a negatively charged plasma cloud. The strong Coulomb force due to the ionized material in the center of the cloud quickly accelerates the electrons back to towards the nuclei left behind. Upon collision with the nuclei, Bremsstrahlung and characteristic emission x-rays are given off. This method of x-ray generation scatters photons in all directions, but also generates picosecond x-ray pulses.

What is somewhat puzzling in the last part of “(462.1) 41:6.3”, presented below, that “calcium” has “twenty” “electrons”, but as we examined earlier, there are twenty-four “calcium-isotopes”, and, it mentions below that because of calcium’s “comparative bulk”, it “is the most successful in escaping from the solar interior”, of “all the solar elements”, where I wonder if there are differences between a “solar elements” and the matter which we examine as material elements? Could this difference have something to do with the comparisons between “solar elements” and solar “isotopes”, where a natural solar-calcium-element has twenty-four electrons and through its escape from the “solar interior”, or some solar process, or interaction with other “solar elements” would cause the loose or four electrons?
This may have something to do with the statement below of “nineteen lighter elements” which may refer to the nineteen unstable isotopes where, two “Observationally Stable” and the three stable isotopes that make up, the five, considered as, stable isotopes?

To examine this, we may need to look at the Urantia Book narration that follows?

Quote:
[. . .] Of all the solar elements, calcium, notwithstanding its comparative bulk — containing as it does twenty revolving electrons — is the most successful in escaping from the solar interior to the realms of space. This explains why there is a calcium layer, a gaseous stone surface, on the sun six thousand miles thick; and this despite the fact that nineteen lighter elements, and numerous heavier ones, are underneath.


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not sure i follow you...but it may help to say that isotopes are formed by gaining or losing neutrons and ions are formed by gaining or losing electrons. The five stable isotopes of calcium have gained 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 neutrons. I think the 19 lighter elements mentioned as being below the calcium layer on the sun would just be the first 19 elements on the periodic table before calcium?


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Makalu wrote:
not sure i follow you...but it may help to say that isotopes are formed by gaining or losing neutrons and ions are formed by gaining or losing electrons. The five stable isotopes of calcium have gained 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8 neutrons. I think the 19 lighter elements mentioned as being below the calcium layer on the sun would just be the first 19 elements on the periodic table before calcium?

I understand your point Makalu, but in a way that is my point, the configuration which we use is based on what we know about calcium on Earth but in this case the UB is referring to what is in the sun, which, I'm assuming that the element configuration in the sun would not be subject to what we know about calcium here. However if one reads further into the next narrations of this section (6) it refers to calcium loosing one electron, from 20 to 19, but if one takes our understanding of electrons all that would occur if, calcium lost one electron from the outer four electron shells (2,8,8,2) is change it to potassium (2,8,8,1) which has four electron shells. The mention of the outer electron circuit and the loose of that one electron has other variations which the UB mentions so, I'm guessing that there is some common factor between solar elements and their structures which may be implied there. I'm slowly working on the next few sections and I'm finding some interesting hypothesis which could change what we actual think about the sun, but there is a very large amount of information to be considered.
In my presentation I have "URL" links through most of the areas of interest, so if you pass your cursor over these areas and they highlight, they have a corresponding internet subject link which has much more information.

Thanks for your interest.


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well i think that the calcium ion would be similar (isoelectronicity) to potassium but different due to still having one more proton than potassium and we know a bit about the calcium in the sun and that it singly ionizes due to the extreme heat into Ca II and is emitted as the visible Ca II K line in spectroscopy.


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Makalu wrote:
well i think that the calcium ion would be similar (isoelectronicity) to potassium but different due to still having one more proton than potassium and we know a bit about the calcium in the sun and that it singly ionizes due to the extreme heat into Ca II and is emitted as the visible Ca II K line in spectroscopy.

Makalu, Ca2+ as a simple cation would follow your premis assuming that a specific temporature would transpose calcium into a plasma state, however it would be nice to know or see an example of this from solar spectroscopy. Or, are you refering to calcium in biology, where I would agree that is a better understanding altough still not that knowledgable in the functioning of the brain.
Although, if we know so much aout the sun, did we know about six thousand miles of calcium gas whiih the UB indicates? If so, I'd love to know were this information is? I would save me time. I am aware that there are exact similarities that can be associated in the UB which also show up in our know science, and if this is were the UB authors got the information from, then they might have sited their source. I'd love to hear from you with some more additional information detailing what you state.

Primarily what I am attempting to do is to associate the grammer and wording used in the text which would otherwise be passed over by the average reader.

Thanks for your interest.


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well i wouldn't say that we know and understand a lot about the sun...there are over a dozen different models attempting to explain various aspects of solar phenomena...

the model by Michael Mozina most closely fits what the urantia book has to say regarding a gaseous stoney surface layer of calcium...or calcium ferrite according to Mozina. His ideas can be found here:

The Birkeland Solar Model: EU Theory And The Plasma Layers Of The Sun

and here:

http://www.etwebsite.com/TheSurfaceOfTheSun.pdf

it should be noted that the image filters on the SDO satellite have been adjusted to eliminate the darkened density gradient that Mozina based his theory on....and Mozina believes the engineers had the instrument calibrated correctly to start with but as too often happens with science, results that don't fit the current mainstream models are often ignored.

I don't think you'll find the UB model fits perfectly with any current or formerly published models...but good luck in your quest anyway.


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I would like to address the information that “Makalu” provided from the links he presented, regarding information as to how the sun is structured, from http://thesurfaceofthesun.com/model.htm which primarily indicates the various layers of the sun are as follows, from its surface inward: “Ferrite, Calcium, Silicon, Neon, Helium, Hydrogen,” “arranged by atomic weight”, where when based on what is presented in the Urantia Book, I must disagree with, the “Ferrite” layer at the surface, in that I believe the surface layer would better be analyzed, with the help of the UB as a “Carbon” based, “Graphite intercalation compound” in that “graphite” seems to better fit with the UB analogy, and being a “allotrope of carbon” would also associate to “potassium graphite”, where also being associated to “calcium graphite” that have a property mentioned in the UB, that can be associated with being a “superconductor”, from the following in, (41:6.4) “[. . .] a mutilated stone atom is able partially to defy gravity [. . .]” referencing the effect of the removal of one of the electrons, of “calcium”, theoretically re-defining it as a “potassium” like element, but is very close to the “sodium” element mentioned.
Therefore, through “graphite”, an “allotrope of carbon”, could associate, “calcium”, “sodium” and “potassium” together as a “mutilated” form of “calcium.”

Now the interesting characteristic of “carbon” when associated to “graphite” is its parallel to “diamond”, as follows:

Image


“Theoretically predicted phase diagram of carbon.”

Quote:
Characteristics

“The different forms or allotropes of carbon (see below) include one of the softest known substances, graphite, and also the hardest naturally occurring substance, diamond. Moreover, it has an affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and is capable of forming multiple stable covalent bonds with such atoms. As a result, carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds; the large majority of all chemical compounds. Carbon also has the highest sublimation point of all elements. At atmospheric pressure it has no melting point as its triple point is at 10.8 ± 0.2 MPa and 4,600 ± 300 K (~4,330 °C or 7,820 °F), so it sublimes at about 3,900 K.

Carbon sublimes in a carbon arc which has a temperature of about 5,800 K (5,530 °C; 9,980 °F). Thus, irrespective of its allotropic form, carbon remains solid at higher temperatures than the highest melting point metals such as tungsten or rhenium. Although thermodynamically prone to oxidation, carbon resists oxidation more effectively than elements such as iron and copper that are weaker reducing agents at room temperature.


So, depending on the activity in the sun, and the various distortions taking place, my inference to “graphite” compound, might also be associated to a “diamond” compound, where depending of temperature and primarily “pressure”, the escaping factor, as mentioned in the UB, could have something to do with the variations of pressure, which would change the structure from “graphite” to “diamond” where this would indicate a “crystal structure”, where the elements mentioned also have an associated “crystal structure”, and there is a difference in this structure between “graphite” (hexagonal crystal system) and “diamond” (Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic)), where the other elements mentioned are associated to the following “cubic” structure:

Calcium = “face-centered cubic“
Image

Sodium = “body-centered cubic”
Image

Potassium = “body-centered cubic”
Image

Diamond = “Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic)”
Image

Where – Graphite = “Hexagonal”
Image

So, depending on the conditions, “graphite” could keep the various elements from escaping, until the conditions change to a “diamond” structure, which may have something to do with the interaction of these elements?

Also, what I found interesting in the previously mentioned link, provided by “Makalu”, were the pictures presented in the article where the following image reminded me or an image which looked very much like it, that of a “liquid crystal” representation.

Image




Image



Where the visual similarities, as shown by the surface pictures from the presented article, might not be molten iron, but plasma, which would appear like a “liquid crystal” not much different than “plasma” when viewing “lighting”?


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Quote:
various layers of the sun are as follows, from its surface inward: “Ferrite, Calcium, Silicon, Neon, Helium, Hydrogen


erm that should read outward not inward...the model he proposes (more detailed in the pdf) is a surface layer of calcium ferrite along with other metals (something akin to a cheap refrigerator magnet) surrounded by the photospheric layers of silicon, neon, helium and hydrogen plasmas in that order. No mention is made of the other 61 elements that have been observed in the solar spectrum which only gives the composition of the photosphere and chromosphere anyway....but i think most everyone believes they originate in the core.


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"Makalu", based on the opening picture presented and the labeling, and the color coding, you would be correct but if you read the documentation, there are various references to the Ferrite layer being just under the photosphere, which at my last understanding is at the surface, regardless of all the other contradictions that I found in the article. So, regardless of the caption, my reference is based on what was presented in the article, not the picture, however since this is a copywriten work, I must follow specific standards. Therefore, if one goes by the captions definition only there would be very light similarity with what the Urantia Book indicates.
But, I still thank you for presenting this information, and there are still so many things in the UB, which we haven't even touched on. Even in this one section alone, which points to other sections of the UB.


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well if you're thinking that the outermost region of the photosphere is the surface in the model, that's not correct...quote from the pdf:

Quote:
Calcium ferrite and other metals make up the lowest "surface". On top of that rigid ferrite surface sits a layer of silicon, a layer of neon, a helium layer, finally followed by hydrogen.


i think the layer of calcium mentioned in the UB has something to do with the ions there having reached terminal velocity but not escape velocity...or their electrons haven't achieved escape velocity and built up the electric field that further accelerates the ions to the point where they are expelled in the solar wind


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