Mon Jul 20, 2015 7:24 am +0000
57:7:3 Definite volcanic action dates from these times. The internal heat of the earth continued to be augmented by the deeper and deeper burial of the radioactive or heavier elements brought in from space by the meteors. The study of these radioactive elements will reveal that Urantia is more than one billion years old on its surface. The radium clock is your most reliable timepiece for making scientific estimates of the age of the planet, but all such estimates are too short because the radioactive materials open to your scrutiny are all derived from the earth's surface and hence represent Urantia's comparatively recent acquirements of these elements.
Mon Jul 20, 2015 5:01 pm +0000
Riktare wrote:The revelators seem to not trust our current methods in geological dating. They recommend radium dating:57:7:3 Definite volcanic action dates from these times. The internal heat of the earth continued to be augmented by the deeper and deeper burial of the radioactive or heavier elements brought in from space by the meteors. The study of these radioactive elements will reveal that Urantia is more than one billion years old on its surface. The radium clock is your most reliable timepiece for making scientific estimates of the age of the planet, but all such estimates are too short because the radioactive materials open to your scrutiny are all derived from the earth's surface and hence represent Urantia's comparatively recent acquirements of these elements.
However, since the most stable Radium isotope has a half-life of only 1600 years, it seems ill-suited for geological time scales. The Radium-Lead technique is used for dating biological events:
But if we examine the disruption of Uranium, we see that it decays into Radium in an intermediate step. Both Uranium isotopes have large half-lives:
https://www.spec2000.net/06-atomicphysics.htm (scroll down to the Uranium-238 Decay Chain diagram)
So in theory, geological time could be dated using the relative proportions of the 2 Uranium isotopes plus Radium plus lead.
Tue Jul 21, 2015 12:50 am +0000
Tue Jul 21, 2015 6:51 am +0000
Some information from the book Uranium Geochemistry, Mineralogy, Geology provided by Jon Covey gives us evidence that fractionation processes are making radiometric dates much, much too old. Geology contributing author Massimo Cortini cites a very interesting anomaly regarding the U 238 decay chain, which is U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Rn-222, Po-218 Po-214, Po-210, Pb-210, Bi-210, Pb-206. The half life of U-238 is 4.47 x 10^9 years and that of Ra-226 is 1.6 x 10^3 years. Thus radium is decaying 3 million times as fast as U-238. At equilibrium, which should be attained in 500,000 years for this decay series, we should expect to have 3 million times as much U-238 as radium to equalize the amount of daughter produced. Cortini says geologists discovered that ten times more Ra-226 than the equilibrium value was present in rocks from Vesuvius. They found similar excess radium at Mount St. Helens, Vulcanello, and Lipari and other volcanic sites. The only place where radioactive equilibrium of the U-238 series exists in zero age lavas is in Hawiian rocks. Thus instead of having 1/(3 million) as much radium as uranium, which we should expect, there is ten times as much, or 1/(300,000) times as much radium as uranium.
We need to consider the implications of this for radiometric dating. How is this excess of radium being produced? This radium cannot be the result of decay of uranium, since there is far too much of it. Either it is the result of an unknown decay process, or it is the result of fractionation which is greatly increasing the concentration of radium or greatly decreasing the concentration of uranium. Thus only a small fraction of the radium present in the lava (at most 10 percent) is the result of decay of the uranium in the lava.
This is interesting because both radium and lead are daughter products of uranium. If similar fractionation processes are operating for lead, this would mean that only a small fraction of the lead is the result of decay from the parent uranium, implying that the U-Pb radiometric dates are much, much too old. Cortini, in an article appearing in the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research also suggests this possibility. He says:
"The invalidity of the Th-230 dating method is a consequence of the open-system behaviour of U and Th. By analogy with the behaviour of Ra, Th and U it can be suggested that Pb, owing to its large mobility, was also fed to the magma by fluids. This can and must be tested. The open-system behaviour of Pb, if true, would have dramatic consequences...." J Vol Geotherm Res 14 (1982) 247-260."
Tue Jul 21, 2015 7:01 am +0000
Riktare wrote:Thanks for the comment Louis. It is an intriguing possibility to consider whether space respiration affects physical characteristics that scientists today believe are constants. Also up for consideration might be the particular orientation of our galaxy with respect to Paradise as we revolve around it or possibly nearness to it.
Plainly speaking: I dunno. I never picked up on anything from the book about that directly and I don't see any particular concrete clues that start to pull things together. I think you must have read about the studies where the supposed gravitational constant has been measured to fluctuate as the Earth's distance to the Sun fluctuates. But I'm not aware of any connections of that to space respiration.
Space respiration might easily affect the underlying electrodynamic characteristics of space permittivity and permeability which directly determine the speed of light and EM propagation. But the revelators hint that nuclear interactions proceed at a speed faster than that and would presumably not be subject to the same limitations. Then again, even current physics of elementary particles has a model for the generation of strong, weak and EM forces that is consistent. Those forces are necessarily intertwined.
Also, the gradient of space respiration is effectively orthogonal to us in the plane of the Master Universe if I'm not mistaken. It may have been well designed that way to make the effects of space respiration almost nil for us. I suspect the shifting of the stress lines of space respiration is roughly analogous to the shifting of the magnetic pole of the Earth - something we can measure that affects navigation but not much else.
Wed Jul 22, 2015 6:01 am +0000
For the last four years, Jonathan O’Neil of McGill University and colleagues have been studying a large band of ancient rocks in northern Quebec known as the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt. However, the team has used a controversial method for dating the rocks.
The dating method relies on the amount of the common isotope neodymium-142 in the rock. All rocks contain some neodymium-142, but rocks older than 4.2 billion years should contain more of it.
However, the neodymium-142 levels may not be an indicator of the rock’s age. O’Neil himself admits his team may instead be measuring the age of the magma from which the rocks formed. “All rocks have precursor, something that came before they formed,” says Whitehouse.
Wed Jul 22, 2015 10:09 am +0000
Besides the classical 238U/206Pb and 235U/207Pb systems, the U and Th decay series include two
geologically meaningful isotope pairs (231Pa/235U and 226Ra/230Th) which show overlapping time
intervals with the most established U-series chronometer 230Th/234U. While 231Pa/235U (or
231Pa/230Th) dating is being more and more applied in volcanology to discuss the disequilibrium
between 230Th/234U, there are only very few investigations on 226Ra/230Th for mainly three reasons.
(1) The chemical separation of Ra from the matrix and, in particular from the chemically homologues behaving Ba is very difficult
(2) the half-live of 226Ra (T1/2 = 1600 y) is considerably shorter than those of the commonly applied isotopes (230Th/234U) and therefore extremely low concentrations of a few fg (10-15 g/g) are typical for crustal rocks. In addition, no artificial longlived spike isotope of Ra is available that can be used for isotope dilution analysis (the half-life of the next most long lived isotope, 228Ra is only 5.7 years). Finally
(3) the parent-daughter relationships between the coupled system 238U, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra is very complex and, depending on the boundary conditions that have to be assumed to find mathematical solutions, highly different results may be obtained for the same set of raw data.